Vol. 7, 2022

Some full papers presented at RAP 2022 conference are published in the:

• Special issue of The European Physics Journal Special Topics – link will be posted after the publication is available online

• Special issue of Journal of the European Radon Association https://radonjournal.net/index.php/radon/issue/view/528

Table of contents

Radiation Physics


S. Zolotov, U. Bliznyuk, F. Studeninkin, A. Belousov

Pages: 1-3

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.01

The study confirms the impact of aluminum plates added in 5-10 MeV electron irradiation method on dose uniformity of a spherical object. It was found that the maximum dose uniformity throughout a spherical volume can be achieved in computer simulation by varying the initial electron energy from 5 to 10 MeV and modifying the thickness of aluminum plate from 3 to 5 mm.
  1. T. Kume, S. Todoriki, “Food Irradiation in Asia, the European Union and the United States: A Status Update,” Radioisotopes, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 291 – 299, May 2013.
    DOI: 10.3769/radioisotopes.62.291
  2. А. С. Алимов, “Практическое применение электронных ускорителей,” Препринт НИИЯФ МГУ но. 2011-13/877, 2011.
    (A. S. Alimov, “Practical application of electron accelerators,” Preprint MSU SINP no. 2011-13/877, 2011.)
    Retrieved from: http://www.sinp.msu.ru/ru/preprint/8277
    Retrieved on: May 10, 2021
  3. Statement Summarizing the Conclusions and Recommendations from the Opinions on the Safety of Irradiation of Food adopted by the BIOHAZ and CEF Panels , vol. 9, no. 4, EFSA, Parma, Italy, 2011.
    DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2107
  4. Н. Н. Исамов и др., “Применение радиационных технологий для обеспечения безопасности продуктов животного происхождения,” Все о мясе, но. 1, стр. 11 – 15, 2017.
    (N. N. Isamov et al., “Using radiation technologies to provide safety of foods of animal origin,” All about meat, no. 1, pp. 11 – 15, 2017.)
  5. А. Н. Павлов и др., “Технологический процесс радиационной обработки пищевой продукции и дозиметрическое обеспечение,” Радиационная гигиена, том 13, но. 4, стр. 40 – 50, Декабрь 2020.
    (A. N. Pavlov et al., “Technological process of food irradiation and dosimetric support,” Radiat. Hyg., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 40 – 50, Dec. 2020.)
    DOI: 10.21514/1998-426X-2020-13-4-40-50
  6. U. A. Bliznyuk et al., “Computer simulation to determine food irradiation dose levels,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci ., vol. 365, 012002, 2019.
    DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/365/1/012002
  7. R. B. Miller, Electronic Irradiation of Foods: An Introduction to the Technology , 1st ed., New York (NY), USA: Springer, 2005.
    DOI: 10.1007/0-387-28386-2



Jelena Ajtić, Branislava M. Mitrović

Pages: 4-6

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.02

Due to their therapeutic and pharmacologic properties, medicinal herbs have a long history of use around the world. The objective of this study is to determine the activity concentration of natural (40K, 226Ra, 232Th, and 238U) and artificial (137Cs) radionuclides in samples of herbal teas from Serbia. The samples of the following commercially available teas: dandelion leaf (Taraxaci folium), mulberry leaf (Mori nigrae folium), ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea), sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua), rose hip (Cynosbati fructus), wall germander (Teucrium chamaedrys), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris), were collected in Serbia in 2021. The radionuclides’ activity concentrations were determined using gamma spectrometry. The results show that among the natural radionuclides, 40K is dominant (320–1600 Bq/kg), while the activity concentration of 226Ra and 232Th ranges from below the minimum detectable activity (MDA) to 12 Bq/kg, and below the MDA to 13 Bq/kg, respectively. In all investigated samples, the 238U activity concentration is below the MDA. Cesium-137 is detected in five out of seven analysed samples (MDA–2.9 Bq/kg). The results indicate that 137Cs, released into the atmosphere after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, is still present in the environment of Serbia. Nevertheless, according to the Serbian legislation regulating the maximum permitted levels of radionuclides in foodstuffs, all of the investigated samples of herbal teas are safe for human consumption.
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    DOI: 10.1186/2193-1801-2-157
    PMid: 23641323
    PMCid: PMC3639363
  2. F. K. Görür, R. Keser, N. Akçay, S. Dizman, N. T. Okumuşoğlu, “Radionuclides and heavy metals concentrations in Turkish market tea,” Food Control, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 2065 – 2070, Dec. 2011.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.06.005
  3. Ö. Kiliç, M. Belivermiş, S. Topcuoğlu, Y. Çotuk “232Th, 238U, 40K, 137Cs radioactivity concentrations and 137Cs dose rate in Turkish market tea,” Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids, vol. 164, no. 2, pp. 138 – 143, Feb. 2009.
    DOI: 10.1080/10420150802681530
  4. L. Petrović, “Nuklearna havarija u Černobilu 1986. godine: Prilog istraživanju ekoloških problema 20. veka,” Istorija 20. veka, tom 28, br. 2, str. 101 – 116, 2010.
    (L. Petrović, “Nuclear incident in Chernobyl 1986: An addition to the research of the environmental problems of the 20th century,” History of the 20th Century, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 101 – 116, 2010.)
  5. G. Vitorović i dr., “Radioaktivnost mleka u Srbiji od Černobilja 1986. do Fukušime 2011. godine,” Veterinarski Glasnik, tom 67, br. 3 – 4, str. 237 – 244, 2013.
    (G. Vitorović et al., “Milk radioactivity in Serbia from Chernobyl nuclear disaster in 1986 to Fukushima accident in 2011,” Vet. Gaz., vol. 67, no. 3 – 4, pp. 237 – 244, 2013.)
    DOI: 10.2298/VETGL1304237V
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  7. I. Kandić, A. Kandić, I. Čeliković, M. Gavrilović, P. Janaćković, “Activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40 K, and 210Pb radionuclides in selected medicinal herbs from Central Serbia and their effective dose due to ingestion,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 701, 134554, Jan. 2020.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134554
    PMid: 31753500
  8. A. Y. Ahmad, M. A. Al-Ghouti, I. AlSadig, M. Abu-Dieyeh, “Vertical distribution and radiological risk assessment of 137Cs and natural radionuclides in soil samples,” Sci. Rep., vol. 9, no. 1, 12196, Aug. 2019.
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    PMid: 31434929
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    PMid: 25164107
  10. B. M. Mitrović et al., “137Cs and 40K in some traditional herbal teas collected in the mountain regions of Serbia,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud., vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 538 – 545, 2014.
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    PMid: 25322769
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  12. M. Jevremovic, N. Lazarevic, S. Pavlovic, M. Orlic, “Radionuclide concentrations in samples of medicinal herbs and effective dose from ingestion of 137Cs and natural radionuclides in herbal tea products from Serbian market,” Isotopes Environ. Health Stud., vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 87 – 92, Mar. 2011.
    DOI: 10.1080/10256016.2011.556723
    PMid: 21390990
  13. K. Chandrashekara, H. M. Somashekarappa, “Estimation of radionuclides concentration and average annual committed effective dose due to ingestion for some selected medicinal plants of South India,” J. Radiat. Res. Appl. Sci., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 68 – 77, Jan. 2016.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2015.09.005


Erjon Spahiu, Irma Bërdufi, Manjola Shyti

Pages: 7–11

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.03

We are using everyday spices in food as pigment taste, flavor of foods or in human diet and some of them have great benefits for our health and body. In Albania the type of spices in food has been increased in recent years and these vary from country to country, depending on the type of soil and how they are grown. Thus, the aim of this current study attempts to determine the level of radioactivity in different types of spices, which are consumed by people living in the city of Tirana in Albania, where is concentrated the largest number of the population and to estimate their effective dose to the human body. Samples of spices are collected randomly in some different markets in Tirana city, which may be produced in Albania or imported. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th were measured in twenty types of spices. A high-resolution HPGe detector was employed to perform the measurements. The obtained results indicate that 40K, 226Ra and 232Th was detected in all selected samples for study, whereas the presence of artificial radionuclide of 137Cs was found only in two spices samples. 40K activity concentration varies from 173.72 ± 9.34 Bq kg-1 to 849.47 ± 39.36 Bq kg-1. The range of activity concentration of 226Ra varies from 5.15 ± 0.52 Bq kg-1 to 21.01 ± 1.80 Bq kg-1. The activity concentration of 232Th varies from 2.04 ± 0.31 Bq kg-1 to 21.90 ± 1.78 Bq kg-1. The estimated Average Annual Committed Effective Dose (AACED) due to ingestion of these spices varies from 5.61 ± 0.29 μSv y-1 to 10.91 ± 0.56 μSv y-1. All these values are far below than the world average value dose for individual of 290 μSv y-1 for all foods reported by UNSCEAR 2000. This indicates that no risk is expected by the intake of spices samples in food. The obtained data provide us the baseline levels of natural radioactivity and background information for future research on foodstuff for radiological protection of the human.
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Radon and Thoron


Kozeta Tushe, Dritan Prifti, Jurgen Shano, Merita Kaçeli, Polikron Dhoqina

Pages: 12–16

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.04

This study provides information about the population’s general health, the risk perception due to radon exposure, and the socio-demographic characteristics of the target age groups through a survey in which participated 152 people. The questionnaire was part of the Public Opinion Survey (STEAM project) in the framework of the IAEA technical cooperation project RER9153: Enhancing the Regional Capacity to Control Long-Term Risks to the Public due to Radon in Dwellings and Workplaces. This survey includes 152 respondents who took part in an Internet through email and WhatsApp application questionnaire conducted from October 2020 to March 2021 in Albania. The purpose of the questionnaire was to investigate what attitudes people had toward their health and toward radon as a possible health risk factor. The results of this survey which was the first social survey focusing on the radon problem and conducted throughout the country can be used as a basis for planning communication strategies and national radon programs. The survey revealed that in Albania people were poorly aware of radon risk perception on their health. Random sampling error did not exceed 5% for the 95% confidence interval calculated according to the sample size based on the desired accuracy with a 95% confidence level.
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Radiation Detectors


Emre Doganci, Aysegul Kahraman, Demet Erol, Ercan Yilmaz

Pages: 17–21

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.05

The Silicon PIN photodiode (Si-PIN PD) with active area (10.0 x 10.0 mm2, 12.0 x12.0 mm2 and 20.0 x 20.0 mm2) was designed by using Silvaco ATLAS and ATHENA tools at Nuclear Radiation Detectors Applications and Research Center (NÜRDAM). To get Si-PIN PDs’ specifications, capacitance-voltage (C-V) and dark current – voltage (I-V), spectral response measurements were accomplished with Bipolar and Shr model, and Newton method. The dark current and capacitance at -90 V of designed Si-PIN PD are (7.49 nA, 39 pF), (39 nA, 51 pF), (10 nA, 80 pF) for 10x10 mm2, 12x12 mm2, 20x20 mm2 respectively. Si-PIN PDs have low dark current and capacitance at high reverse voltage and all photodiodes reach the full depletion mode at -20 V. Spectral response of each Si-PIN PD is 0.6 AW-1. According to obtained results, designed Si-PIN PDs are likely to be used for medical application after fabrication and radiation test.
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  11. E. Doğanci et al., “Fabrication and characterization of Si-PIN photodiodes,” Turk. J. Phys., vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 556 – 562, Dec. 2019.
    DOI: 10.3906/fiz-1905-16

Radiation Protection


Dritan Prifti, Kozeta Tushe, Elida Bylyku, Brunilda Daci

Pages: 22–26

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.06

Institute of Applied Nuclear Physics (IANP) is the main user of radioactive sources in Albania and is licensed by Radiation Protection Commission by decision No. 385 dated 18.11.2016 for the activities of Use, Transport, Storage, Import-Export and treatment of radioactive waste and sources. The safety and security regime for the transport of radioactive materials addresses the radiological concerns and dangers associated with the transport of radioactive materials. IANP uses a new Volkswagen Crafter van, for the transport of radioactive materials for different private and state companies. The Van is equipped with a central locking system of all doors and with a container for the transport of radioactive sources, to increase transport safety and security and to protect radioactive packaging during any possible accident. IANP received also a container for the transport of radioactive materials from the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2020, which has significantly increased the physical security during transport of radioactive sources for transport of radioactive sources and also increased safety in transport to protect radioactive packaging during any possible accident. A physical security system with all security modules is installed to increase the physical security of radioactive sources of different categories that will be transported by this vehicle.
  1. Kuvendil popullor i Republikes se Shqipërisë. (Nëntor 9, 1995). Ligj nr. 8025 ndryshuar me ligjin 9973 dhe me ligjin 26/2013. Per mbrojtjen nga rrezatimet jonizuese.
    (People's Assembly of the Republic of Albania. (Nov. 9, 1995). Law no. 8025 amended by law 9973 and by law 26/2013. On protection from ionizing radiation .)
    Retrieved from: https://www.ishp.gov.al/rrezatimet-jonizuese/ligje-2/
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  2. Security of radioactive material in transport, IAEA Nuclear Security Series no. 9-G (Rev. 1), IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 2020, pp. 39 – 52.
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  3. Këshilli i Ministrave për miratimin e rregullores. (Tetor 30, 2015). Vendimi nr. 877 për mbrojtjen fizike të materialeve radioaktive në Republikën e Shqipërisë .
    (Council of Minister for the approval of the regulation. (Oct. 30, 2015). Decision no. 877 on physical protection of radioactive materials in the Republic of Albania .)
    Retrieved from: https://www.ishp.gov.al/rrezatimet-jonizuese/ligje-2/
    Retrieved on: May 18, 2022
  4. Këshilli i Ministrave për miratimin e rregullores. (Nëntor 16, 2016). Vendimi nr. 815 për miratimin e rregullores për transportin e sigurt të lëndëve radioactive .
    (Council of Minister for the approval of the regulation. (Nov. 16, 2016). Decision no. 815 on the adoption of the regulation on the safe transport of radioactive materials .)
    Retrieved from: https://www.ishp.gov.al/rrezatimet-jonizuese/ligje-2/
    Retrieved on: May 18, 2022
  5. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Specific Safety Requirements no. SSR-6 (Rev. 1), IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 2018, pp. 55 – 85.
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  6. Code of conduct on the safety and security of radioactive sources, IAEA/CODEOC/2004, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 2004, pp. 12 – 16.
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  7. Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, INFCIRC/274, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 1980, pp. 4 – 9.
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  8. Procedura për hyrje-dalje në Institutin e Fizikës Bërthamore të Aplikuar , Instituti i Fizikës Bërthamore të Aplikuar, Tiranë, Shqipëri, 2016, fq. 1.
    ( Procedure for entry-exit at the Institute of Applied Nuclear Physics , IANP, Tirana, Albania, 2016, p. 1.)
  9. Procedura për hyrje-dalje në objektin e depozitimit të mbetjeve radioactive , Instituti i Fizikës Bërthamore të Aplikuar, Tiranë, Shqipëri, 2016, fq. 2 – 5.
    (Procedure for entry-exit in the radioactive waste storage facility, IANP, Tirana, Albania, 2016, pp. 2 – 5.)
  10. Procedura për hyrje-dalje në Laboratorin Standard Sekundar të Kalibrimit , Instituti i Fizikës Bërthamore të Aplikuar, Tiranë, Shqipëri, 2016, fq. 2 – 4.
    ( Procedure for entry-exit in the Standard Secondary Calibration Laboratory , IANP, Tirana, Albania, 2016, pp. 2 – 4.)
  11. Procedura për hyrje-dalje në Laboratorin e Rrezatimit, Instituti i Fizikës Bërthamore të Aplikuar, Tiranë, Shqipëri, 2016, fq. 2 – 4.
    (Procedure for entry-exit in the Irradiation Laboratory, IANP, Tirana, Albania, 2016, pp. 2 – 4.)
  12. Generic procedures for assessment and response during a radiological emergency , IAEA-TECDOC-1162, IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 2000, pp. 55 – 79.
    Retrieved from: https://www.iaea.org/publications/5926/generic-procedures-for-assessment-and-response-during-a-radiological-emergency
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  13. Këshilli i Ministrave i Republikës së Shqipërisë. (Korrik 7, 2010). Rregullorja nr. 543 për punën e sigurt me burimet e rrezatimit jonizues .
    (Council of Ministers of the Republic of Albania. (Jul. 7, 2010). Regulation no. 543 on safe work with ionizing radiation sources.)
    Retrieved from: https://www.ishp.gov.al/rrezatimet-jonizuese/rregullore-2/
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  14. Këshilli i Ministrave i Republikës së Shqipërisë. (Gusht 18, 2011). Rregullorja nr. 590 për mbrojtjen e punonjësve të ekspozuar profesionalisht .
    (Council of Ministers of the Republic of Albania. (Aug. 18, 2011). Regulation no. 590 on the protection of professionally exposed employees .)
    Retrieved from: https://www.ishp.gov.al/rrezatimet-jonizuese/rregullore-2/
    Retrieved on: May 18, 2022
  15. Plani i reagimit ndaj emergjencave radiologjike gjatë transportit të burimeve radioactive , Komisioni i Mbrojtjes nga Rrezatimi, Tiranë, Shqipëri, 2018, fq. 11 – 20.
    ( Radiological Emergency Response Plan during transport of radioactive sources , RPC, Tirana, Albania, 2018, pp. 11 – 20.)


Recep Kurtulus, Cansu Kurtulus, Taner Kavas

Pages: 27–30

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.07

These days, the utilization of industrial solid waste substances for gaining added-value products has become of prime importance for securing a more sustainable future. With this in mind, the present study handles using waste bricks bottom ash (BBA) involving bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) dopant for understanding the potentiality as a radiation protection material. Four different material systems, 1 to 4, were designed using the batches of xBi2O3 - (100-x)BBA where x: 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt%. The intended pellets (D: 28 mm) were made ready after precisely weighing, mixing, and pressing steps. For sintering, the prepared bodies, a heat treatment process was initiated by applying 10 ⁰C/min to reach 1100 ⁰C, which was then dwelled 1h at the peak temperature. Afterward, the successfully produced waste-derived material systems were subjected to some material characterization analysis, as well as theoretical radiation shielding computations via Phy-X/PSD. According to the density measurements, we found out that the increasing doping rate from 0 to 20 wt% in Bi2O3 led to the improvement in bulk density from 1.3857 to 1.6177 g/cm3 in the respective order. Additionally, the compressive strength showed an increasing trend from 7.28 to 8.01 MPa with the increasing Bi2O3 contribution. On the other hand, the essential radiation shielding parameters, linear attenuation coefficient (LAC), half-value layer (HVL), and effective atomic number (Zeff) were figured out, and we found out that all parameters were enhanced owing to the higher Bi2O3 addition. As a result, the sample-4 can be preferred as an alternative material system where radiation protection is significant.
  1. A. H. Almuqrin, M. I. Sayyed, N. S. Prabhu, S. D. Kamath, “Influence of Bi2O3 on Mechanical Properties and Radiation-Shielding Performance of Lithium Zinc Bismuth Silicate Glass System Using Phys-X Software,” Materials, vol. 15, no. 4, 1327, Feb. 2022.
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    PMid: 35207868
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  2. Z. N. Kuluozturk, R. Kurtulus, N. Demir, T. Kavas, “Barium-lead-borosilicate glass containing lanthanum oxide: fabrication, physical properties, and photon shielding characteristics,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 128, no. 2, 166, Feb. 2022.
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  3. M. A. Khalaf, C. B. Cheah, M. Ramli, N. M. Ahmed, A. Al-Shwaiter, “Effect of nano zinc oxide and silica on mechanical, fluid transport and radiation attenuation properties of steel furnace slag heavyweight concrete,” Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 274, no. 2, 121785, Mar. 2021.
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  7. K. A. Naseer, K. Marimuthu, M. S. Al-Buriahi, A. Alalawi, H. O. Tekin, “Influence of Bi2O3 concentration on barium-telluro-borate glasses: Physical, structural and radiation-shielding properties,” Ceram. Int., vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 329 – 340, Jan. 2021.
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  8. M. Kurudirek, N. Chutithanapanon, R. Laopaiboon, C. Yenchai, C. Bootjomchai, “Effect of Bi2O3 on gamma ray shielding and structural properties of borosilicate glasses recycled from high pressure sodium lamp glass,” J. Alloys Compd., vol. 745, pp. 355 – 364, May 2018.
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  9. M. S. Al-Buriahi, M. Rashad, A. Alalawi, M. I. Sayyed, “Effect of Bi2O3 on mechanical features and radiation shielding properties of boro-tellurite glass system,” Ceram. Int., vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 16452 – 16458, Jul. 2020.
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  10. K. Boonin et al., “Effect of BaO on lead free zinc barium tellurite glass for radiation shielding materials in nuclear application,” J. Non. Cryst. Solids, vol. 550, 120386, Dec. 2020.
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  11. A. F. A. El-Rehim, K. S. Shaaban, “Influence of La2O3 content on the structural, mechanical, and radiation-shielding properties of sodium fluoro lead barium borate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 4651 – 4671, Feb. 2021.
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  12. E. Şakar, Ö. F. Özpolat, B. Alım, M. I. Sayyed, M. Kurudirek, “Phy-X / PSD: Development of a user friendly online software for calculation of parameters relevant to radiation shielding and dosimetry,” Radiat. Phys. Chem., vol. 166, 108496, Jan. 2020.
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  13. E. Ilik et al., “Cerium (IV) oxide reinforced Lithium-Borotellurite glasses: A characterization study through physical, optical, structural and radiation shielding properties,” Ceram. Int., vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 1152 – 1165, Jan. 2022.
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  16. Y. Al-Hadeethi, M. I. Sayyed, “A comprehensive study on the effect of TeO2 on the radiation shielding properties of TeO2–B2O3–Bi2O3–LiF–SrCl2 glass system using Phy-X / PSD software,” Ceram. Int., vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 6136 – 6140, Apr. 2020.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2019.11.078


Irma Bërdufi, Erjon Spahiu, Manjola Shyti, Elida Bylyku

Pages: 31–34

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.08

This study examines the natural and artificial radioactivity in concrete used as shielding material for medical 60Co source temporary stored in our waste storage site. The determination of the radioactivity level is done to see if any leakage or contamination occurred in concrete material after the dislocation of 60Co source to another destination. Concrete samples were taken from the three drums located in the temporary waste storage site and after preparation of samples were placed in a marinelli beaker with a volume of 500 ml and left in isolation for one month to achieve the secular equilibrium. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in ten samples are determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry method with HPGe detector. The average values of activity concentration are found to be 147.56 ± 6.97 Bqkg-1 for 40K, 18.09 ± 0.64Bqkg-1for 226Ra and 16.90 ± 0.68 Bqkg-1for 232Th, respectively. The activity concentration index (ACI) is used as a screening tool to assess the radiological hazard due to possible release of the concrete in environment or to reuse it as building materials. From all analysis performed the maximum value of ACI was 0.21. This value was found to be lower than 1 and in none of them was found the presence of 60Co radionuclide. We conclude depending on the Decision No. 638, dated on 07.09.2016 on the approval of the regulation “On the safe management of radioactive waste in the Republic of Albania” that the concrete could be discharged freely in environment, or it can be used as building material because do not pose any significant risk to humans.
  1. The Council of European Union. (Dec. 5, 2013). Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM on laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionizing radiation, and repealing Directives 89/618/Euratom, 90/641/Euratom, 96/29/Euratom, 97/43/Euratom and 2003/122/Euratom .
    DOI: 10.3000/19770677.L_2014.013.eng
  2. Council of Ministers of the Republic of Albania. (Nov. 25, 2015). Decision no. 957 for the approval of the regulations on reference levels of indoor radon concentration and other radio nuclides concentrations in commodities with public protection effect.
  3. Council of Ministers of the Republic of Albania. (Sep. 7, 2016). Decision no. 638 on the approval of the regulation on the safe management of radioactive waste in the Republic of Albania .)
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Material Science


Mailes C. Zulu, Erhan Budak, Ercan Yilmaz

Pages: 35–39

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.09

In this study we report the effect of different frequency on SiNWs based capacitor. The C-V and Gm/ω-V were carried at different frequency of 50 kHz to 1MHz. We found that the capacitance and conductance value decreased as the value of frequency increased and this was as a result of the distribution of interface trap charges in the dielectric layer. The effect of frequency on series resistance (Rs) and interface states density (Dit) were investigated. It was found that the Rs-V curves shifted toward the inversion region, while reducing in the accumulation region. The Dit value showed a decrease in the applied voltage frequency. After removing the effect of Rs from C-V and Gm/ ω-V curves, we found that the capacitance value increased significantly compared to uncorrected one, while the corrected conductance-voltage (Gc/ω-V) had peaks between 0.26V and 2.03V. Moreover, the obtained Dit value was on the order of 1010eV-1 cm -2.
  1. I. Leontis, M. A. Botzakaki, S. N. Georga, A. G. Nassiopoulou, “High capacitance density MIS capacitor using Si nanowires by MACE and ALD alumina dielectric,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 119, no. 24,244508, Jun. 2016.
    DOI: 10.1063/1.4954883
  2. A. Mutale, E. Yilmaz, “Frequency Dependent Electrical Characteristics of Al/SiO2/SiNWs/n-Si MOS Capacitors,” RAP Conf. Proc., vol. 6, pp. 91 –96, 2021.
    DOI: 10.37392/rapproc.2021.19
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  4. R. Nezasa et al., “Fabrication of Silicon Nanowire Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Capacitors with Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3 Stacked Dielectric Films for the Application to Energy Storage Devices,” Energies, vol. 14, no. 15, 4538, Jul. 2021.
    DOI: 10.3390/en14154538
  5. R. Nezasa, Y. Kurokawa, N. Usami, “Evaluation of Si Nanowire MOS Capacitor Using High-k Dielectric Materials,” in Proc. IEEE 18th Int. Conf. Nanotechnol. (IEEE-NANO), Cork, Ireland, 2018, pp. 2018 – 2021.
    DOI: 10.1109/NANO.2018.8626356
  6. L. T. Cong et al., “N-type silicon nanowires prepared by silvermetal-assisted chemical etching: Fabrication and optical properties,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process., vol. 90, pp. 198–204, Feb. 2019.
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  7. P. Nath, D. Sarkar, “Ammonia sensing by silicon nanowires (SINWs) obtained through metal assisted electrochemical etching,” Mater. Today Proc., vol. 57, pp. 224 – 227, 2022.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.matpr.2022.02.369
  8. M. Naffeti, P. A. Postigo, R. Chtourou, M. A. Zaïbi, “Elucidating the effect of etching time key-parameter toward optically and electrically-active silicon nanowires,” Nanomaterials, vol. 10, no. 3, 404, Feb. 2020.
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    PMid: 32106503
    PMCid: PMC7152846
  9. E. Hourdakis, A. Casanova, G. Larrieu, A. G. Nassiopoulou, “Three-dimensional vertical Si nanowire MOS capacitor model structure for the study of electrical versus geometrical Si nanowire characteristics,” Solid State Electron., vol. 143, pp. 77 – 82, May 2018.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.sse.2017.11.003
  10. U. Gürer, E. Yilmaz, “Investigation of Electrical Characteristics and Surface Morphology of Vanadium Oxide-Vo 2 Mos Devices,” RAP Conf. Proc., vol. 5, pp. 11 – 14, 2021.
    DOI: 10.37392/rapproc.2020.04
  11. K. P. Bastos et al., “Thermal stability of Hf-based high-k dielectric films on silicon for advanced CMOS devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B Solid-State Mater. Adv. Technol., vol. 112, no. 2 – 3, pp. 134 – 138, Sep. 2004.
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    PMid: 28582967
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    DOI: 10.1063/1.3374889
  14. A. Mutale, E. Yilmaz, “Frequency-dependent electrical characteristics of Al/Er2O3 /SiO2 /n-Si/ Al MOS capacitor deposited by e-beam,” RAP Conf. Proc., vol. 5, pp. 15 – 20, 2021.
    DOI: 10.37392/rapproc.2020.05
  15. A. Aktağ, A. Mutale, E. Yılmaz, “Determination of frequency and voltage dependence of electrical properties of Al/(Er2O3/SiO2/n-Si)/Al MOS capacitor,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron., vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 9044 – 9051, Jun. 2020.
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  16. H. M. Singh, Y. Y. Lim, P. Chinnamuthu, “Electrical and dielectric parameters in TiO 2-NW/Ge-NW heterostructure MOS device synthesized by glancing angle deposition technique,” Sci. Rep., vol. 11, no. 1, 19837, Oct. 2021.
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  17. A. Mutale, S. C. Deevi, E. Yilmaz, “Effect of annealing temperature on the electrical characteristics of Al/Er2O3/n-Si/Al MOS capacitors,” J. Alloys Compd., vol. 863, 158718, May 2021.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2021.158718
  18. S. S. Cetin, H. I. Efkere, T. Sertel, A. Tataroglu, S. Ozcelik, “Electrical Properties of MOS Capacitor with TiO2/SiO2 Dielectric Layer,” Silicon, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 2879 – 2883, Dec. 2020.
    DOI: 10.1007/s12633-020-00383-8


Alex Mutale, Ercan Yilmaz, Oktay Aytar

Pages: 40–44

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.10

The investigations of gamma irradiation response on silicon nanowires (SiNWs) based MOS capacitor with high- k of Yb2O3 is very important in the fields of semiconductors physics and nanotechnology. Hence, in this current work, we fabricated SiNWs using metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) technique and then Al/Yb 2O3/SiNWs/n-Si (100)/Al MOS capacitor was exposed to gamma rays using Co-60 source at different doses of 0-4Gy, respectively. Our experimental results demonstrated that the capacitance value in the accumulation region decreased with increasing in the radiation dose, while the C-V curves shifted toward negative voltage side. In addition, the interface states density (Dit) increased with an increase in the gamma irradiation exposure. The value of Dit was found in the range of 6.98×1009 eV-1 cm-2 and 1.14×1010 eV-1 cm-2.
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  5. J. Shi et al., “Synergistic effects in MOS capacitors with an Au/HfO2-SiO2/Si structure irradiated with neutron and gamma ray,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., vol. 55, no. 11, 115104, Mar. 2022.
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Racheal Chirwa, Alex Mutale, Ercan Yilmaz

Pages: 45–49

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.11

In this paper, we report the influence of post deposition annealing temperature on structural, morphological, and electrical properties of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with Y2O3. SiNWs were fabricated by metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) method at room temperature. After the fabrication process, the high-k of Y2 O3 was deposited onto SiNW/n-Si(100) by e-beam evaporation technique. Three samples of Y2O3 with SiNWs were annealed at 200oC, 400oC and 600oC in N2 ambient for 40 min, while one sample was kept as deposited, respectively. The crystalline and morphological properties of Y2O3/SiNWs/n-Si(100) were analyzed by XRD and SEM techniques. On the other hand, the electrical properties of the capacitors based on SiNWs were investigated through C-V measurements at 1MHz. We found that the capacitance value in the accumulation region, dielectric constant(k) and interface states density (Nit) decreased with an increase in the annealing temperature. This could be attributed to the formation of interfacial layer and dangling bonds during high annealing temperature.
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Umutcan Gürer, Ozan Yilmaz, Erhan Budak, Ercan Yilmaz

Pages: 50–53

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.12

The graphene is one of the most popular materials of our age since its discovery. The graphene and its derivatives have gained much attention in sensor applications because of its features (e.g., electronic conductivity, specific surface area, etc.). However, the coating of graphene is challenging for the researchers especially for Si/SiO2 surfaces due to its surface tension. Many researchers tend to use chemical materials for the coating rGO onto Si/SiO2 such as APTES, TEOS, PEG, HMDS etc. For the purpose, we discovered a novel type ultrasonic-assisted coating method for sensor applications which can be done using any chemicals. To do so, we firstly produced reduced graphene oxide (rGO) from graphite by using Hummer’s method and chemical reduction process. Then, we prepared Si/SiO2 samples and put them into plastic container. After that, we put samples into ultrasonic bath and dropped rGO suspension onto samples by using with micro-pipette. After that, the rGO coated samples were dried on hot plate at 100°C. The results showed high potential that rGO can be coated onto Si/SiO2 surfaces with low-cost solution.
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Environmental Physics


Erjon Spahiu, Irma Bërdufi, Manjola Shyti, Florinda Cfarku

Pages: 54–57

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.13

The activity concentrations of 7Be, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs in ground level air at the monitoring station in Tirana, Albania were determined during the period from January 2021 to January 2022. To perform a routine air radioactivity monitoring, we used a typical aerosol sampling station located at the Institute of Applied Nuclear Physics in Tirana not only for routine air radioactivity monitoring, but also to monitor the air in the institute from the radiation protection point of view because in the institute are located the temporary radioactive waste site, 137Cs source used in the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory and 137Cs irradiation source. Activities in all aerosol samples are measured by gamma spectrometer with High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe). The cylinder geometry efficiency curve generated by Canberra’s Laboratory Sourceless Calibration Software (LabSOCS) was used to analyze the air filters. The obtained results show the activity concentrations of cosmogenic 7Be ranged from 2.38 to 6.82 mBq m–3 with a maximum in the spring/summer period. The activity concentrations for 210Pb were in the range 0.37 to 1.27 mBq m–3. The activity concentrations of anthropogenic 137Cs in ground level air was observed only in three air filters in the range 0.30–6.01 μBq m–3. The monitoring is done for the first time in Albania, providing us the data of cosmogenic and terrestrial radionuclides in ground level air. This study will continue also in the future in order to see the variation of radionuclides during the years.
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Jasmina Obradovic, Vladimir Jurisic

Pages: 58–61

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.14

Quick identification of coronavirus was an emergency in the COVID-19 pandemic. The most used diagnostic tools were serologic, rapid antigen tests, as fast, easily applicable, and affordable, but with lower sensitivity. The results were usually confirmed with a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. This assay requires proper expertise and robust laboratory equipment. It is further, costly and time-consuming, with restricted application in low-income countries. Even so, it is used as a golden standard, since it has high specificity and sensitivity. The serologic antibody-based assays were also applied during this Covid-19 burden. Their application was able two weeks after the Covid-19 onset since that was the period when antibodies might be detected. Here are briefly presented the advantages and disadvantages of these assays. Meanwhile, the majority of the diagnostic tests were developed, with some of them being automated and highly sensitive, but often costly. The general recommendation is the improvement of the sensitivity of the serologic tests and development of the easily applicable, fast, and accurate diagnostic tests.
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Dragana Pap

Pages: 62–66

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.15

Inaccurate results of laboratory testing are mostly caused by errors in the preanalytical phase. The aim of this retrospective study is monitoring, documenting and preventing errors in the pre-analytical phase in order to provide better health care for patients. The study has been done from 2017 to 2021 and involves monitoring, documenting and preventing errors with aspect to phlebotomy in clinical biochemical laboratory of primary health care, in Students Health Protection Institute. Errors are classified in accordance with IFCC recommendation as quality indicators: insufficient sample volume, inappropriately labeled sample and sample damage. The study has shown that the most common errors are insufficient sample volume and sample damage (0.97 %). Inappropriately labeled samples were significantly lower and completely eliminated during period of study (2017 was 0.34 %, 2021 was 0 %; p<0.01). No significant decrease in number of sample damage (2017- 0.50 % - 2021- 0.30 %) was shown and insufficient sample volume errors (2017- 0.43% - 2021-0.32%) were constantly persisting during the period of study. Through permanent improvement and application of quality management system (QMS), implementation of certification and accreditation of laboratories according to the ISO15189, 2018- (QM / QA) standards for medical laboratories the entire laboratory testing process can be improved. Implementation of LIS (Laboratory Information System), the standard for POCT-ISO22870: 2006 Point of care testing, along with clear transparent and available procedures, errors in the pre-analytical phase can be minimized. Special attention should be paid on errors that continue to exist in the study. With more accurate, precise and valid results, correct and fast diagnosis, satisfied patients can be achieved with a smaller number of errors in pre-analytical phase and the principle of cost benefit can be achieved following the guideline: “no blood sample is better than a bad blood sample”.
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Other topics


Christos Alexopoulos, Milena Despotovic, Milena Zlatanovic, Marija Mikic Mladenovic, Ivan Milojevic, Marko Jovanovic

Pages: 67–71

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.16

In the past five years, population policy in Serbia has dealt with declining birth rates and strategies to raise them because current trends indicate that birth rates will not increase significantly, which will further contribute to a significant decline in population. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to present an overview of measures to prevent falling birth rates in the Republic of Serbia, as well as their effects. Materials and methods: This paper belongs to the group of review papers. Various databases are reviewed, selected references are analyzed, systematized and presented in this paper. Results: The most important measures of population policy in Serbia are parental allowance and maternity allowance. Like the parental allowance, the salary compensation for mothers is defined by the Law on Financial Support to Families with Children. Families whose monthly income for the last three months does not exceed the established threshold are entitled to child allowance. In 2020, the Republic Health Insurance Fund enabled insured women up to the age of 43, who are being treated for infertility, to be entitled to an unlimited number of attempts at biomedically assisted artificial insemination. The state has also adopted a Strategy for Encouraging Birth. Statistical data show that a slight increase in the fertility rate was observed in the previous decade (1.43 in 2013; 1.46 in 2016; 1.49 in 2018, and 1.52 in 2019). Conclusion: It is still early to talk about the effects of the measures, given that some of them have only recently been introduced and that it is necessary to pass a certain period of time in order to see the results. The historical context, economic and social factors, but also the global pandemic of the SARS-COV-2 virus should be taken into account. In order for population policy measures to yield better results in the future, work needs to be done to strengthen the framework for their implementation.
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Bojan Veljković, Sandra Dukić, Mina Mihajlović, Zorica Kaludjerović, Momčilo Todorović, Christos Alexopoulos

Pages: 72–75

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.17

With the advent of the Internet and social networks, we are increasingly encountering the term “Cyberbullying” – electronic violence, harassment through digital technologies, mobile phones, correspondence platforms and the like. It is a behavior that is repeated with the intention of intimidating, embarrassing and humiliating a certain person. Live abuse and cyberbullying can often go hand in hand, with cyberbullying leaving a digital footprint that can be helpful in stopping it. The Cyberbullying survey was conducted in April 2022 on 150 respondents of both sexes, aged 16-25 in Serbia, with an online Questionnaire containing 16 questions with offered answers. The results of the research indicate that 90% of the respondents have heard about violence on social networks, over 30% stated that they have experienced some kind of violence on social networks. It was determined that women are more exposed to cyber violence, most often by the opposite sex, most often on Instagram (24.7%) and Facebook (19.3%), and a larger number of respondents report violence to friends rather than parents. The negative consequences that cyber violence has left on the victim are mostly emotional (30%). The largest number of respondents (85.3%) believe that the best form of protection is blocking and reporting a person who is trying to commit violence. The results of the research confirmed our hypothesis about the significant prevalence of violence on social networks, the complexity of its manifestation and the impact on the mental and emotional state of victims. Further research of this social phenomenon on a larger sample is necessary in order to create prevention and protection measures as successfully as possible.
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    (Digital violence, I’m protecting you, National platform for the prevention of violence involving children, Belgrade, Serbia.)
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Christos Alexopoulos, Danijela Radoičić, Tijana Joncic, Dragan Radosavljević, Marija Mikić Mladenovic, Ivan Milojević

Pages: 76–81

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.18

Many of the challenges that health organizations face today are different in their work and depend on the regulations of changes in business, competition, but also the insufficient amount of all resources. The main goal of health organizations is to achieve a high quality of service. Today, the health sector is facing competition that leads to the need to gather information about current and potential users of adequate medical services. The efficiency and quality of the services provided by health institutions is largely determined by the qualification of the staff and the quality of the work team. This should be set in the conditions of increased need for better and more accurate diagnosis of various diseases and better treatment of patients. Therefore, the leaders of the organization of the health institution have a difficult task regarding the application of strategic management in order to best organize good working conditions in the team and create success in the treatment of patients. The success that the health institution will achieve depends on the education of employees, but also the application of new technologies, but also the procurement and provision of modern and adequate equipment. All this together can lead to significant and notable results in treating patients and achieving success and progress. An appropriate strategy is needed that will be implemented, but also overcome the challenges of today. That is why human resource management is one of the important tasks for an organization to survive in a changing environment and achieve success. There are three important goals in this. First of all, it is necessary to solve the problem and define the concepts related to the process of human resource planning. The second part is the one related to achieving competitiveness and specificity of the health institution. The third part included continuous training of health workers through scientific research, education and training and adaptation of innovations in health. Based on all the achieved results, it is necessary to draw conclusions and provide guidelines for further work, which indicates the need for continuous monitoring and constant creation of plans for the future.
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Bojan Veljkovic, Jelena Aleksandric, Mile Despotovic, Ivan Milojevic, Marija Mikic Mladenovic, Christos Alexopoulos

Pages: 82–85

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2022.19

Healthcare professionals have a key role to play in the introduction, application and use of technology in clinical practice. The lack of technical expertise and technological understanding poses a challenge to the quality of health services and probably to the safety, dignity and quality of life of patients. Experience so far speaks of computer literacy, which is the basis of the implementation of the health information system and varies according to gender, age and years of work experience. Determine whether computer literacy depends on gender, age, and years of service. The research was conducted according to the type of cross-sectional study, in the population of health workers employed at the Health Center in Jagodina and the General Hospital in Ćuprija. Yesterday’s sample consisted of 142 respondents. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection, statistical data processing was performed with the computer support of the statistical package for social sciences IBM SPSS Statistics, Version 23 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Analysis of variance was used from statistical tests. Results. Sample composed of 78.2% of respondents and 27.2% of respondents; in both groups of respondents, the average achievement on the literacy scale is around 17 points. Age 40 and over is 59%; the first two groups (less than 30 years of age and 30 to 39 years of age) are statistically significantly different from the oldest groups of respondents (F = 4.949, p = 0.003, df = 3). The largest percentage of respondents have a work experience of 10-29 years; younger respondents have more knowledge of computers (F = 7.239, p = 0.000, df = 3). Computer literacy depends on age and years of service.
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