Vol. 4, 2019

Table of contents

Radiobiology

ANALYSIS OF THE CAPABILITIES OF THE PROGRAMS FIJI, IPLAB AND DARFI IN THE STUDY OF DNA REPAIR ABILITIES IN THE CELLS OF PATIENTS WITH A MOSAIC FORM OF ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA

Aleksandra Nozdracheva, Roman Ushakov, Nadezhda Pleskach, Mirya Kuranova

Pages: 1-6

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.01

Different programs are used for processing and analyzing of fluorescent images. However, some of these programs produce uncertain results due to their dependence on human factor. Here we made a comparative study of three programs used for fluorescent images analysis: IPLab, Fiji and DARFI. The programs were compared by the fluorescence intensity measurement quality and cell nucleus area detection. We also analyzed the quality of counting of foci in the cell nucleus, the determination of foci area and foci fluorescence intensity. Fluorescent images were obtained with laser microscope Zeiss Axiovert 200M after indirect immunofluorescence. The DNA repair study was performed on three cell lines from patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). This disease is characterized by natural disruptions of the ATM kinase function. The study of the features of ATM kinase in DNA repair in patient cells is relevant not only in AT diagnostic, but also in the estimation of disease severity.
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    DOI: 10.14440/jbm.2015.62
    PMid: 26290880
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  2. J. M. Shillingford, IPLab Imaging Software for Microscopy from BD Biosciences version 4.0, Biocompare, South San Francisco (CA), USA, 2010.
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  3. J. Schindelin et al., “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 676 - 682, Jun. 2012.
    DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.2019
    PMid: 22743772
    PMCid: PMC3855844
  4. A. Sollazzo et al., “Live Dynamics of 53BP1 Foci Following Simultaneous Induction of Clustered and Dispersed DNA Damage in U2OS Cells,” Int. J. Mol. Sci., vol. 19, no. 2, Feb. 2018.
    DOI: 10.3390/ijms19020519
    PMid: 29419809
    PMCid: PMC5855741
  5. E. Bobkova et al., “Recruitment of 53BP1 Proteins for DNA Repair and Persistence of Repair Clusters Differ for Cell Types as Detected by Single Molecule Localization Microscopy,” Int. J. Mol. Sci., vol. 19, no. 12, Nov. 2018
    DOI: 10.3390/ijms19123713 PMid: 30469529
    PMCid: PMC6321197
  6. T. Ferreira, W. Rasband, ImageJ User Guide – IJ 1.46r, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (MD), USA, 2012.
    Retrieved from: https://imagej.nih.gov/ij/docs/guide/user-guide.pdf
    Retrieved on: Aug. 22, 2019
  7. M. L. Kuranova, N. M. Pleskach, T. A. Ledashcheva, V. M. Mikhel’son, I. M Spivak, “Mosaic forms of ataxia-telangiectasia,” Tsitologiia, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 619 - 629, 2014.
    PMid: 25697008
  8. И. В Озеров, “Математическое моделирование процессов индукции и репарации двунитевых разрывов ДНК в клетках млекопитающих при действии редкоионизирующего излучения с различной мощностью дозы,” к. ф.-м.н., МГУ имени М. В. Ломоносова, Радиобиология, Москва, Российской Федерации, 2015. (I.V. Ozerov, “Mathematical modeling of the processes of induction and repair of double-stranded DNA breaks in mammalian cells after the action of rarely ionizing radiation with different dose rates,” Ph.D dissertation, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Dept. of Radiobiology, Moscow, Russia, 2015.)
    Retrieved from: http://www.bio.msu.ru/res/Dissertation/675/DOC_FILENAME/Ozerov_avtoref.pdf
    Retrieved on: Aug. 22, 2019
  9. М. Г. Заднепрянец и др., “Влияние физических характеристик ускоренных тяжёлых ионов на формирование и репарацию двунитевых разрывов ДНК,” Письма в ЭЧАЯ., том. 15, но. 6(218), стр. 563 - 572, 2018. (M. G. Zadnipryanets, “The effect of the physical characteristics of accelerated heavy ions on the formation and repair of double-stranded DNA breaks,” Letters in JINR, vol. 15, no. 6(218), pp. 563 - 572, 2018.)
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    Retrieved on: Aug. 22, 2019

RADIOBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND DOSIMETRY USING A FLAT ALPHA SOURCE

Zygmunt Szefliński, Mateusz Filipek, Jakub Gotlib, Urszula Kaźmierczak

Pages: 7–9

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.02

The irradiation system consisting of an α-source and disc holder has been developed in the Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw. A simple exposure system for irradiation of biological samples consists of the Am-241 disc source, source holder and biological samples cultured in special Petri dishes. The irradiation system has been investigated to determine the alpha spectrum and dose distribution in irradiated single cell layer attached to the Mylar foil. Commercial Am-241 disc source of 50 mm in diameter, with a radioactive element embedded into a substrate layer was examined to established the uniformity of surface radioactivity over the disc source. The experimental device is equipped with cell dishes of 40 mm in diameter and a 6 µm thick Mylar foil bottom. Care was taken for homogenous irradiation of the cells. Dose calibration for the irradiation system was calculated taking into account source-to-target geometry.
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Radiation Chemistry

PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF Al2O3+Ag COMPOSITE NANOPOWDERS

M. A. Kiseleva, S. Yu. Sokovnin, M. E. Balezin

Pages: 10–14

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.03

The principal possibility of the composite particles production by the radiation-chemical method with acceptable productivity was shown. The composite particles were produced in the nanoscale range (50 and 80 nm) from aluminum oxide partially coated with silver. The coating percentage was from 2–3% for smaller particles to 16–40% for larger composite. The stability of the suspension before irradiation using different stabilizers was studied, and the reason for the change in the color of the suspensions after ultrasound treatment was determined. The biological activity of the nanopowder which showed a high level of antibacterial activity was investigated.
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    DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S132327
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Radiation in Medicine

ESR INVESTIGATION OF X-RAY EXPOSURE ON SOME ANTI-DIABETICS AND PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS

E. Tugce Sarcan, Asuman Tas, Mine Silindir-Gunay, A. Yekta Ozer, Seyda Colak, Baki Hekimoglu

Pages: 15–17

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.04

X-ray is ionizing radiation used in several areas such as analytical sciences, medicine and security areas. X-ray machines are used in the entrance of important places (airports, shopping centers, etc.) for security purposes. The aim of this study was the investigation of the potential effects of X-ray irradiation on anti-diabetics (metformin HCl, pioglitazone HCl) and proton pump inhibitors (PPI) (lansoprazole, pantoprazole sesquihydrate) pharmaceuticals which are used in chronic diseases by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). ESR analysis was done before and after different X-ray irradiation doses. Afterwards, ESR spectra and resonance peaks were evaluated. As a result, no significant free radicals were detected by ESR resonance peaks and also, their ESR intensities did not change significantly by increasing X-ray doses.
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DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE AND MASS-SEPARATION METHODS FOR SELECTIVE PRODUCTION OF MEDICAL RADIONUCLIDES

V.N. Panteleev, A.E. Barzakh, L.Kh. Batist, D.V. Fedorov, V.S. Ivanov, S.A. Molkanov, S.Yu. Orlov, M.D. Seliverstov, Yu.M. Volkov

Pages: 18–22

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.05

At the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute – Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Gatchina, Russia) a cyclotron C-80 designed to produce protons with the energy of 40–80 MeV and beam intensity of 100 μA (first stage) has been launched. One of the beams of the cyclotron will be used for the treatment of malignant eye tumors. At the same time the main goal of C-80 is the production of a wide range of medical radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy. For this purpose, the construction of the RIC-80 (Radioactive Isotopes on the C-80 cyclotron) complex intended to function on the C-80 beam has been planned. A brief description of the RIC-80 complex is given, and the results of the use of new methods and studies of target devices for the production of radionuclide generator 212Pb/212Bi and 223Ra, 224Ra, 225Ac radioisotopes that undergo alpha-decay are discussed. The suggestions of the mass-separator use in the on-line and semi on-line mode to obtain high isotopic purity radionuclides, which is especially important for medical applications, are discussed. The results of a new high-temperature method use of lutetium radionuclide separation from the ytterbium target material in a high vacuum are presented.
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PRE-CLINICAL BNCT GLIOBLASTOMA RESEARCH. ICP-AES BORON DETERMINATION METHOD. STUDIES ON 10B BORON BIODISTRIBUTION IN MICE’S ORGANS

А. Tsygankova, V. Каnygin, А. Каsatova, Е. Zavjalov, Т. Guselnikova, А. Kichigin, R. Mukhamadiyarov

Pages: 23–29

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.06

To accompany boron neutron capture therapy for cancerous tumours, there has been an optimised ICP-AES method for boron determination in animals’ organs tissues. This technique is characterised by its universalism. The approach comprises preliminary acid decomposition at high temperatures and pressure (if necessary), ICP-AES boron determination in the gained solutions analysing comparative samples basing on a single element solution. Its validity is proved by the spike experiment and mass sample variation test. The ICP-AES method is used during the evaluation of BPA and BSH accumulation in organs and tissues when intravenously injecting U87 glioblastoma medication to SCID mice of SPF-status.
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USING THE LUMINESCENT DYES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF LIPOSOME TRANSPORT PROPERTIES AS THE BORON (10B) CARRIER FOR BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE

R. Mukhamadiyarov, A. Tsygankova, V. Kanygin

Pages: 30–35

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.07

High effectiveness of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) makes actual the investigation aimed at creating transport systems for the targeted delivery of boron-containing agents. Liposomes are currently among promising boron carriers for BNCT. Existing liposomal technologies allow changing their properties by changing the particle diameter, surface charge, lipid composition, and the presence of vector molecules on the surface of the liposome membrane. The structure of liposomes can include in their composition hydrophobic and lipophilic boron-containing agents at the same time, which increases the content of boron atoms in them. Methods for rapid assessment of dynamic absorption and localization of substances delivered in their composition are required for experiments to improve liposomal drug delivery systems. The method of labeling the lipid membrane of liposomes and their internal contents is a great interest in view of the presence of a large number of various luminescent dyes and highly efficient methods for assessing their intracellular localization (confocal microscopy). By using the method of the rapid freezing of tissues and the preparation of cryosections from them makes it possible to perform an express assessment of the liposomes transport properties for a high volume of samples. The blue region of the spectrum for labeling liposomes did not use in our experiments leaving it for the nuclear dyes (Hoechst 33342, DAPI). Nile red was used for labeling liposomal membranes (excitation/emission maxima ~552/636 nm), PKH-26 (excitation/emission maxima ~551/567 nm), TopFluor PC (excitation/emission maxima ~495/503 nm). High molecular dextran derivatives FITC-Dextran (excitation/emission maxima ~495/520 nm), Rhodamine B isothiocyanate–Dextran (excitation/emission ~570⁄590 nm) were used for labeling internal water core liposomes. The combination of the proposed luminescent labels allows us to determine the localization of the labels of liposomes delivered in the lipid and aqueous phases selectively and makes it possible to extrapolate these data with respect to hydrophilic and lyophilic boron-containing agents. The remaining free region of the spectrum lying in the far-red spectrum allows using it for determining the localization of liposomes in certain organelles, for example, mitochondria (MitoTracker Deep Red for mitochondria, Liso Tracker Deep Red for lysosomes, etc).
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TWO LABELED EDTMP RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS WITH Sm-153 AND Lu-177 FOR HUMAN BONE RADIOTHERAPY

Hesham MH Zakaly, Mostafa Y. A. Mostafa, M Zhukovsky

Pages: 36–40

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.08

177Lu and 153Sm are perspective radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. High-energy beta particles and the relative half-life of the radionuclides are used to achieve an effective palliative treatment of bone metastases. In this paper, the effect of the drug carrier EDTMP (i.e. ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate) on the ionic form of 177Lu and 153Sm is presented. The absorbed doses of 177Lu and 153Sm in ionic form labeled with EDTMP in different organs and tissues are determined by IDAC-Dose 2.1 (Internal Dose Assessment by Computer) software and WinAct software which is used to calculate cumulative activity. 177Lu and 153Sm are lanthanide radionuclides which actively accumulate in the liver and bones when used in ionic form. In the case of labeling with EDTMP, the distribution and elimination of the drug occur according to the kinetics of the carrier, EDTMP. The use of an osteotropic complex (drugs attracted to and targeting bones) allows creating a large dose in the pathological areas and minimizes the damage of healthy organs and tissues. 177Lu and 153Sm labeled with EDTMP decrease the liver dose absorption and increase the bone surface absorption for a more effective treatment and minimizing side effects. The effective dose per administered activity is 0.189 mGy/MBq for 177Lu-ionic form, 0.232 mGy/MBq for 153Sm-ionic form and 0.242 mGy/MBq for 177Lu-EDTMP and 0.139 mGy/MBq for 153sm-EDTMP.

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Radiation Measurements

COMPARISON OF ENERGY RESPONSE FUNCTION OF STILBENE, BC501 AND EJ309 NEUTRON GAMMA DETECTION SYSTEM

Annesha Karmakar, Anil K. Gourishetty, A. Kelkar

Pages: 41–46

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.09

The paper discusses the energy response of a single crystal stilbene and two liquid scintillator detectors, BC501 and EJ309 to a range of neutrons and gamma energies generated using a 1.7MV Tandetron accelerator at IIT Kanpur. Stilbene is a solid-state composite organic detector can be used as an alternative choice for combined neutron-gamma detection. Studies have shown that stilbene’s light output response is similar to BC501. Works have also claimed a linear response of stilbene to neutrons for energies less than 5 MeV. In this work, neutrons are generated using the IIT-Kanpur 1.7MV Tandetron using C(Li7,n) reaction. The threshold energy of the reaction and the target thickness are determined by Monte Carlo simulations. Next, we measure the pulse height distribution of various neutron energies incident on stilbene, BC501 and EJ309 of the same dimensions. The response of all the organic crystals of the study to neutrons using the Tandetron is performed on energy spanning the fission neutron energy range to fast neutron energy range. A general-purpose Monte Carlo simulation kit, GEANT4, is used for simulating the reaction and detector response behaviour. Stilbene shows 38% lower energy response than that of EJ309 and BC501 shows 11% lower energy response from EJ309 for the entire neutron spectrum. These responses are consistent as the number density of hydrogen of the same mass of stilbene, BC501 is 38% and 11% lower than EJ309, respectively. GEANT4 simulation allows a detailed analysis of detector response physics for the advancement of detector development for nuclear security applications.
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TRITIUM AND CARBON-14 IN RELEASES OF NUCLEAR REACTOR FACILITIES OF VARIOUS TYPES

E. Nazarov, A. Ekidin, A. Vasilyev, M. Pyshkina, M. Vasyanovich

Pages: 47–52

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.10

The production of electricity by European nuclear power plants with various types of reactor installations in the period from 1995 to 2017 was considered. For each nuclear power plant in Europe, the median specific emission indicators of tritium and carbon-14 (GBq/GWh) were calculated. Depending on these indexes, all stations were divided into 3 types: with the best, stable and the worst emission practices. A conservative estimate of the contribution of various reactor facilities to the activity of tritium and carbon-14 in the atmosphere was made. To assess the activity of tritium and carbon-14 entering the atmosphere as a result of emissions from the research nuclear reactor an experimental stand was developed.
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ASSESSMENT OF INDUSTRIAL DIAMONDS USING FOR Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, AND Si USING THERMAL AND EPITHERMAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS WITH COMPTON SUPPRESSION

C. Brenan, S. Landsberger

Pages: 53–56

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.11

An assessment of the trace elemental content in industrial diamonds was performed using thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). For NAA, the elements determined were Mn and Si (short-lived radionuclides) Co, Cr, Fe, Ni (long-lived radionuclides) using normal and Compton suppression counting modes. Quality control was achieved using a NIST standard reference material.
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Radiation Protection

ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL RADIONUCLIDE LEVELS FOR TEA SAMPLES IN NAJAF, IRAQ

Dhahir Mohammed Dhahir, Azhar Salman Ali, Ali Abid Abojassim, Hayder H. Hussain

Pages: 57–60

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.12

In this paper twenty tea samples that are available in Najaf markets were tested for their radioactivity contents using gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements NaI(Tl) "3× 3". The specific activity of 238U, 232Th and 40K from tea samples ranged from 2.87±1.75 to 22.03±1.95 Bq/kg, 5.80±3.45 to 64.74±5.12 Bq/kg and 630.00±13.08 to 1354.67±25.82 Bq/kg respectively. Hazard indices were also calculated to assess the radiation hazard. All calculated values for hazard indices were less than unity.
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NUCLEAR STATE LIABILITY FOR DAMAGE RESULTING FROM NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES

Lilian Letícia Nieri Madi, Gian-Maria Agostino Angelo Sordi, Edmir Netto de Araújo

Pages: 61–66

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.13

Much has already been seen in the world regarding the damage that may result from an accident in nuclear power plants. In the event of an accident that causes effective damage, either to the environment or to the population, both the Brazilian and foreign standards predict liability for remedying. The Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988 determines the competence of the Union to operate nuclear services and installations, being State monopoly activities related to nuclear material and its derivatives. Besides that, FC/88 attributed liability stricto sensu for nuclear damage. The Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for nuclear damage, dated May 21, 1993, which was promulgated in Brazil by Decree No. 911/1993, provides that the operator is responsible for nuclear damages, in the case of Brazil, the operator is the State entity (Federal Autarchy) responsible for the operation. Thus, in cases of nuclear damage, the State should be held liable objectively. And here issues begin to arise such as: Is the State always responsible? Is there any possibility of exclusion of the State’s liability? This paper aims to analyze the constitutional text and the infra-constitutional rules in an attempt to answer these and other questions without, however, intending to exhaust the subject.
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A NEED FOR EYE LENS DOSIMETRY IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE

M. Wrzesień, L. Królicki, Ł. Albiniak, J. Olszewski

Pages: 67–71

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.14

Changing the individual dose limit for the lens of the eye from a value of 150 mSv per year to a level of 20 mSv (averaged over defined periods of five years or 50 mSv in a single year) means that issues related to routine eye lens dosimetry become interesting from the point of view of radiation protection. This could mean that the dosimeter designed to measure the doses at the level of the eye lens may become the next dosimeter routinely worn by nuclear medicine workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation. The dosimeters currently used in nuclear medicine are the personal dosimeter and the ring dosimeter. Will this also be the case for nuclear medicine employees? In this interdisciplinary branch of medicine, the factors that cause the highest risk of radiation exposure of personnel are the process of manual handling, i.e. the process of preparing a radiopharmaceutical called labelling. Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are labelled manually. In Poland, the exception from this rule is when radiopharmaceuticals are produced for the needs of positron emission tomography (PET), which are labelled using automatic processes. Manual procedures also include the process of radiopharmaceutical injection to the patients. The aim of the work was to assess the exposure of eye lenses of workers in nuclear medicine, as well as of the personnel in centers that produce radiopharmaceuticals for PET diagnostics, from the viewpoint of advisability of routine eye lens exposure monitoring, taking into account changes in the dose limit for the lens of the eye. Methods: The results of own measurements of the personal dose equivalent Hp(3), carried out in five nuclear medicine departments in Poland, as well as in two centers producing radiopharmaceuticals for PET, were subject to analysis. The analysis includes two most frequently used radionuclides for diagnostic purposes, namely 99mTc, 18F and the less frequently used 68Ga, in addition to 131I, which is used for therapeutic purposes. Dosimetric measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors of domestic manufacture. Results & Conclusions: Estimated analysis of the annual exposure makes it possible to indicate cases where the maximum annual value of personal dose equivalent, in terms of Hp(3), exceeds threefold the new limit value specified at 20 mSv/year.
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COMPARISON OF COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL DOSE RATES IN A NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS FACILITY

Jose Rafael Parga, Sheldon Landsberger

Pages: 72–77

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.15

The vast majority of radiation protection guidelines in nuclear facilities usually relate from one to a few sources of radiation in very controlled environments. Currently, there are 111 research reactors where neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a major research and teaching component. In particular, NAA can yield a wide variety of exposures due to different types of samples and neutron fluxes. Unlike any other type of radiation laboratories, an NAA facility can contain a large variety of radioactive isotopes as a result of activation products with varying degrees of half-lives and with different intensities of gamma-rays and beta particles. Using MCNP 6.2, a Monte Carlo code developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for radiation transport, dose rates were computed. The computational results were validated by irradiating several National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials. The samples were allowed to decay during their transfer from the reactor to the NAA laboratory. These computational doses were validated to the experimental doses. Using this information, a database will be developed for accurately predicting the expected doses to researchers working at research reactors and develop better radiation protection standards at NAA facilities.
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RADIOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF PHOSPHATE MINING IN EL-SEBAIYA LOCALITY, ASWAN ZONE, EGYPT

E. H. Ghanim, A. Salman, S. Harb

Pages: 78–82

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.16

In the present work, the specific activity concentrations of natural radionuclides of 238U and 232Th chain members, as well as 40K were measured in phosphate samples using a gamma-ray spectrometric technique based on high-resolution hyper-pure germanium detectors (HPGe). Samples were collected from the El-Sebaiya area at the Aswan zone, Egypt. The external hazard index(Hex), the external absorbed dose rates(D), the annual effective doses (E) and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) due to gamma radiation from these samples have been calculated and compared with the corresponding average worldwide values. The evaluations of the associated radiological hazards from these materials on the workers during mining processes in the El-Sebaiya area were carried out.
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LUNG CANCER INCIDENCE AND CANCER RISK FROM RADIOACTIVITY – SOME DATA FOR THE CAPITAL OF MONTENEGRO

Danko Živković, Nevenka M. Antović

Pages: 83–89

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.17

There is an interest in evaluating and predicting risks due to existing radiation exposure situations, such as radon inhalation or exposure to external terrestrial radiation, both indoors and outdoors – as the greatest contributors to annual effective dose coming from natural radiation sources. That is particularly related to radon exposure and an evaluation of its role in initiating lung cancer, although risk projections have serious limitations being affected by the other important agents contributing to the cancer risk. Cancer risk due to radon inhalation and terrestrial gamma radiation in Podgorica, the capital of Montenegro, is considered here together with available epidemiological data, showing that among different types of cancer diagnosed in Montenegro, lung cancer is among the most common ones. The previous analysis indicated that the lung cancer incidence rate increases from year to year, 6% annually in the period from 1978 to 2005, with an average standardized incidence rate of 20.8 per hundred thousand. The incidence rate of lung cancer in Podgorica in 2009 evaluated in the present study was found to be around 34.9. Diagnosed cancer types were non-small cell lung cancer in 37%, small cell lung cancer 22%, adenocarcinoma 17%, and mixed – adeno- and non-small cell 24%. Excess lifetime cancer risk due to terrestrial gamma radiation outdoors in the urban area of Podgorica (14 locations) is estimated to be in the range (10-3) from 0.17 to 0.69, with an average of 0.33, while the risk of lung cancer due to lifetime radon inhalation (153 homes in the region of the Podgorica municipality) – from 0.04 to 8.8%, with an average of 0.8% and median of 0.4%.
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Radioecology

EVALUATION OF RADIOACTIVITY IN MONTENEGRO SOIL USING A STATISTICAL APPROACH

Nevenka M. Antović, Nikola R. Svrkota

Pages: 90–95

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.18

Surface soil from 47 locations in Montenegro had been previously analyzed for radioactivity due to natural 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and man-made 137Cs, and showed mean activity concentrations around 41.1, 45.8, 500 and 95.2 Bq/kg, respectively. Discriminant Analysis used in the present study for the classification, with activity concentrations of radionuclides as independent variables and the Montenegro region (South, Center, North) as a grouping variable, showed 76.6% of original grouped cases as correctly classified. The radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard index showed a mean of 142 Bq/kg, 0.39 and 0.5, respectively. An average external terrestrial gamma absorbed dose rate was found to be 67.5 nGy/h – for natural radionuclides only, and 79.3 nGy/h for natural radionuclides and 137Cs. The corresponding annual effective dose showed a mean of 0.08 mSv and around 0.1 mSv, respectively. These hazard indices, together with radionuclide activities, are used in the factor analysis performed with Principal Component Analysis as the extraction method and Varimax with Kaiser Normalization as the rotation method. Two components were extracted. The first one loaded basically on 232Th and 226Ra activity explained ~80.6% of the total variance, while the second component explaining ~12.2% of the total variance is found to be strongly correlated with 137Cs and 40K activity.

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HEAVY METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES IN MUSCLES OF FISH SPECIES IN THE SOUTH ADRIATIC – MONTENEGRO

Ivanka Antović, Danijela Šuković, Snežana Andjelić, Nikola Svrkota

Pages: 96–102

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.19

This paper deals with the concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr and Zn, and activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, as well as levels of 226Ra and 232Th through their daughters 214Bi and 228Ac, in muscles of six fish species from the South Adriatic Sea adjacent to Montenegro. Specimens of three mullet species from the Liza genus – Liza aurata (golden grey mullet), Liza saliens (leaping mullet) and Liza ramada(thinlip grey mullet), were caught by a trawl net in the area of Tivat – Boka Kotorska Bay, as well as Merluccius merluccius (European hake), Dicentrarchus labrax (European seabass), Sparus aurata (gilt-head sea bream). Element concentrations were determined in a standard procedure using iCAP 6000 ICP-OES and atomic absorption spectrophotometer AA-6800, whilst radionuclide activity concentrations – in a standard HPGe ORTEC gamma spectrometry. The results showed a level of 137Cs somewhat lower than in the muscles of previously analyzed the other (mullet) species from the South Adriatic, in contrast to 214Bi level which is mostly found to be slightly higher than its parent (226Ra) level in the other previously analyzed species. Committed effective dose from the annual intake of radionuclides due to an adult fish consumption is found to be highest for M. merluccius (13.8 mSv), showing all the radionuclides above minimum detectable activity. In muscle of L. aurata element concentrations were found to be ordered as: Fe>Zn>Cr>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb>Cd. This species showed a concentration of each element higher than the other species (particularly Pb, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Cr). The concentration of Zn only could be considered as more or less comparable in all the muscles. No one muscle showed a concentration of toxic trace elements Pb and Cd exceeding the limits from the EU regulations. A potential health risk associated with Pb and Cd intake due to consumption of analyzed fish species is estimated using the target hazard quotient found to be £0.055.
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THE TENSILE BREAKING STRENGTH OF PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS (CAV.) TRIN. EX STEUD. LEAVES AS A CHRONIC IRRADIATION EFFECT

D. Ganzha, D. Ganzha, A. Nazarov, B. Sploshnoi

Pages: 103–107

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.20

Tension breaking strength of common reed leaves was studied. Samples of leaves were taken in six aquatic ecosystems in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In the samples of leaves, the specific activity of 90Sr and 137Cs was measured, as well as the accumulation of macro elements of the plant’s mineral nutrition. According to the measurement results, the doses of internal radiation from the incorporated radionuclides were calculated. A close statistical relationship was established between the tensile breaking strength of the leaves with respect to their radiation exposure and the reciprocal statistical relationship of irradiation dose to the accumulated leaves to macroelements. It is shown that the tensile breaking strength of the leaves is mainly influenced by the irradiation dose from incorporated 137Cs in the leaves. The data obtained show that the damaging effect of ionizing radiation leads to an increase in the tensile breaking strength of the leaves, and the enrichment with macroelements of mineral nutrition has a radioprotective effect. The results of statistical analysis indicate that the tensile breaking strength of common reed leaves can be considered a reliable test when assessing the irradiation dose of internal exposure from incorporated radionuclides.
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THE PROGRAMME AND RESULTS OF THE RADIOECOLOGICAL MONITORING OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS IN THE VICINITY OF ROOPPUR NPP (PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH)

Rena A. Mikailova, Aleksei V. Panov, Dmitry N. Kurbakov

Pages: 108–112

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.21

The paper presents an overview of the radioecological monitoring programme of aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of nuclear power plants and presents the results of its implementation in the 30-km zone of the Rooppur NPP in the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. The environmental survey has shown that the content of radionuclides in different components of observed freshwater ecosystems is low and that the radiation situation of the region is safe.
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Radiation Detectors

RADIATION HARD MONOLITHIC CMOS SENSORS WITH SMALL ELECTRODE SIZE FOR THE ATLAS EXPERIMENT IN THE HL-LHC

I. Asensi Tortajada et al.

Pages: 113–116

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.22

Mini-MALTA is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor prototype developed in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging process, with a small collection electrode design (3um), and a small pixel size (36.4 um), on high resistivity substrates and large voltage bias. It targets the outermost layer of the ATLAS ITK Pixel detector for the HL-LHC. This design addresses the pixel in-efficiencies observed in MALTA and TJ-Monopix to meet the radiation hardness requirements. This contribution will present the results from characterisation in particle beam tests that show full efficiency up to 1E15 neq/cm2 and 70 Mrad.
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    Retrieved on: Feb. 25, 2019
  2. Technical Design Report for the ATLAS Inner Tracker Pixel Detector, Rep. CERN-LHCC-2017-021; ATLAS-TDR-030, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, 2017.
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    Retrieved on: Feb. 25, 2019
  3. P. S. Miyagawa, I. Dawson, Radiation background studies for the Phase II inner tracker upgrade, Rep. ATL-UPGRADE-PUB-2013-012, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
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    Retrieved on: Feb. 25, 2019
  4. H. Pernegger et al., “First tests of a novel radiation hard CMOS sensor process for Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors,” J. Instrum., vol. 12, no. 6, Jun. 2017.
    DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/12/06/P06008
  5. I. Caicedo et al., “The Monopix chips: depleted monolithic active pixel sensors with a column-drain read-out architecture for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade,”in Proc. 9th Int. Workshop Semicond. Pixel Detect. Part. Imaging (PIXEL 2018), Taipei, Taiwan, 2018.
    DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/14/06/C06006
  6. R. Cardella et al., “MALTA: an asynchronous readout CMOS monolithic pixel detector for the ATLAS High-Luminosity upgrade,” in Proc. 9th Int. Workshop Semicond. Pixel Detect. Part. Imaging(PIXEL 2018), Taipei, Taiwan, 2018.
    DOI : 10.1088/1748-0221/14/06/C06019
  7. M. Munker et al., “Simulations of CMOS pixel sensors with a small collection electrode, improved for a faster charge collection and increased radiation tolerance,” J. Instrum., vol. 14, no. 5, May 2019.
    DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/14/05/C05013
  8. I. A. Tortajada, “MiniMALTA: Radiation hard pixel designs for small-electrode monolithic CMOS sensors for the High Luminosity LHC,” J. Instrum., Unpublished.
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    DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2012.01.024

STUDY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NEUTRON DETECTORS USING DOPED CsI CRYSTALS

Tufic Madi Filho, Maria da Conceição Costa Pereira, José Roberto Berretta, Lucas Faustino Tomaz, Miriam Nieri Madi

Pages: 117–121

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.23

The development of new radiation detectors using scintillation crystals, which increase response speed, dose and energy accuracy and, at the same time, the feasibility of simplifying and reducing costs in the production process are always necessary. In the CTR-IPEN laboratory, pure and doped CsI crystals were grown using the Bridgman technique. This work shows the obtained results using a doped CsI scintillator with the converters: Br, Pb, Tl, Li as alpha, beta ,gamma and neutron detectors.
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    DOI: 10.11606/T.85.2006.tde-16052012-084114
  2. M. C. C. Pereira, T. M. Filho, M. M. Hamada,“Development of crystals based on cesium iodide for measurements of gamma radiation and alpha particles,” Nukleonika, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 151 – 155, 2009.
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    Retrieved on: Apr. 11, 2019
  3. M. C. C. Pereira, T. M. Filho, M. M. Hamada, “The effect of Pb2+ dopant in the crystal of CsI and its application as scintillation detector: A study of alpha particles,” Radiat. Eff. Defects in Solids, vol. 167, no. 12, pp. 921 – 928, Nov. 2012.
    DOI: 10.1080/10420150.2012.723002
  4. M. C. C. Pereira, T. M. Filho, “Scintillation Characteristics of CsI Crystal Doped Br under Gamma and Alpha Particles Excitation,” Mater. Sci. Appl., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 368 – 377, May 2014.
    DOI: 10.4236/msa.2014.56042
  5. M. C. C. Pereira, T. M. Filho, V. M. Lopes, J. R. Berretta, J. P. N. Cárdenas, “Scintillation Response of CsI:Tl Crystal Under Neutron, Gamma, Alpha Particles and Beta Excitations,” in Proc. 2015 Int. Nuc. Atl. Conf. (INAC 2015),Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2015.
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  6. M. C. C. Pereira, T. M. Filho, J. R. Berretta, C. H. Mesquita, “Characteristics of the CsI:Tl Scintillator Crystal for X-Ray Imaging Applications,” Mater. Sci. Appl.,vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 268 – 280, Feb. 2018.
    DOI: 10.4236/msa.2018.92018
  7. T. M. Filho, M. C. C. Pereira, J. R. Berretta, J. P. N. Cárdenas, “Study of a Li doped CsI scintillator crystal as a neutron detector,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 630, no. 1, 2015.
    DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/630/1/012010
  8. M. C. C. Pereira, T. M. Filho, J. P. N. Cárdenas, “Inorganic scintillation crystals for neutron detection,” in Proc. 2013 3rd Int. Conf. Adv. Nucl. Instrum., Measurement Methods and their Appl. (ANIMMA), Marseille, France, 2013.
    DOI: 10.1109/ANIMMA.2013.6727878

ELECTRONIC READER DESIGN WITH RADFET (PMOSFET) DOSIMETER SENSOR

Nesrin Teki̇n, Ferdi Sarimli, Zeynel Abidin Sezer, Ercan Yilmaz

Pages: 122–124

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.24

In this study, a new reader has been designed to measure the amount of radiation dose detected by RadFET (pMOSFET) sensor. The designed reader calculates the voltage threshold voltage (Vth) shifts of the pMOSFET to determine radiation dose and display it on the Touch TFT LCD screen placed on the printed electronic circuit. It has been developed more in particular to be easily used in radiotherapy and other healthcare field which have radiation sources. The electronic board has also been developed to adjust and read the data for SiO2 and Er3O2 sensor structured RadFETs. The electronic card has been designed with STM32F103 series processor that has 12-bit ADC resolution. In addition, specific Bluetooth circuit has been designed for communication. Thus, dose measurements versus date graph, personal details (name, age etc.) can be sent to personal computers and devices such as smart phones and tablets. Dose measurements can be currently kept by micro SD card.
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  2. C. Pongpisit, L. Adul, G. Qi-Wei, Sa-Ngiamsak Chiranut, “Biasing technique of MOSFET for an accurate and real-time-readout radiation sensor,” J. East Asian Stud., no. 16, pp. 175 – 183, Apr. 2018.
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  3. G. Mitev, S. S. Jordanova, M. G. Mitev, “Enhanced Read-out Systems for RADFET dosimeters research,” Anu. J. Electron., pp. 250 – 253, 2015.
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NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS TO PROBE THE AIR POLLUTION USING PLANT BIOMONITORING IN EGYPT

Yasmin Sarhan, Wael Badawy, Marina Frontasyeva, Wafaa Arafa, Abd ElAzeem Hussein, Hussein El-samman

Pages: 125–130

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.25

A comprehensive characterization of the biomonitoring of air pollution assessment using Eucalyptus Globulus and Ficus Nitida plants in Cairo and Minoufia cities in Egypt is given. The concentrations (ppm) of thirty-two elements were determined in 30 leaf samples by means of the epithermal neutron activation analytical technique. The collected samples were irradiated by epithermal neutrons at REGATA -pulsed reactor IBR-2 in Dubna, Russian Federation. The obtained concentrations of; Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Tb, Hf, Ta, Au, Th, and U were compared to the reference plant. The analysis of the obtained concentrations revealed that the concentrations at some sites in Menoufia Governorate were significantly higher than those in Cairo, in spite of the intense population, heavy traffic, and vehicle waste disposed in Cairo. The remarkable increase of metals in Menoufia Governorate has occurred most probably due to the uncontrolled disposal of industrial and domestic waste. In addition, the study shows the Ficus Nitida plant responsiveness to metals is higher than Eucalyptus Globulus.
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OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND RADIATION RESPONSE OF Li ION-DOPED CsI SCINTILLATOR CRYSTAL

Maria da Conceição Costa Pereira, Tufic Madi Filho, José Roberto Berretta, Lucas Faustino Tomaz, Miriam Nieri Madi

Pages: 131–135

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.26

Scintillators are materials that convert the energy of ionizing radiation into a flash of light. Due to the existence of different types of scintillators, they are classified into three groups according to their physicochemical characteristics, namely, inorganic, organic and gaseous scintillators. Among the inorganic crystals, the most frequently used as scintillator consist of alkali metals, in particular alkaline iodides. Scintillation materials have many applications, for instance in medical imaging, security, physics, biology, non-destructive inspection and medicine. In this study, lithium doped CsI scintillator crystals were grown using the vertical Bridgman technique. The concentration of the lithium doping element (Li) studied was 10-4 M to 10-1 M. Analyses were carried out to evaluate the developed scintillators with regard to luminescence emission and optical transmittance. The luminescence emission spectra of these crystals were measured with a monochromator for gamma radiation from 137Cs source excitation. The determination of the dopant distribution along the crystalline axis allowed the identification of the region with Li concentration uniformity, which is the region of the crystalline volume indicated for use as a radiation detector. The crystals were excited with neutron radiation from AmBe source, with the energy range of 1 MeV to 12 MeV. As neutron sources also generate gamma radiation, which can interfere with the measurement, it is necessary that the detector be able to discriminate the presence of such radiation. Accordingly, experiments were performed using gamma radiation in the energy range of 59 keV to 1333 keV in order to verify the ability of the detector to discriminate the presence of different types of radiation.
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DETERMINATION OF THE MINIMUM DETECTABLE DOSE AND THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FILTERS ON TLD-100H 260°C THERMOLUMINESCENCE PEAK

Kemal Firat Oguz, Mehmet Yüksel

Pages: 136–138

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.27

Thermoluminescence dosimeters have been an important tool for measuring the ionizing radiation dose in the field of personal, clinical, environmental and space applications. In this study, thermoluminescence glow curves of newly synthesized Mg,Cu,P doped LiF (TLD-100H) were recorded using four different filters in order to investigate the effect of different filter packs on TL glow peaks. It was observed that the TLD-100H dosimeter has four TL glow peaks at 100 oC, 150 oC, 200 oC and 260 oC for the heating rate value of 1 °C/s. Additionaly, the minimum detectable dose of the TLD-100H dosimeter for a TL peak of 260 oC has been determined using the thermoluminescence method as a preliminary work.
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DEVELOPMENT OF RADIATION DETECTOR (RADIATION MODULE) WITH THREE DIFFERENT SENSORS FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS

Bugra Kocaman, Mehmet Kopru, Bekir Solak, Murat Harmandali, Eylem Guven, Ercan Yilmaz

Pages: 139–144

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.28

The novel domestic radiation sensors — called “NürFETs” —can be used to measure Total Ionizing Dose (TID) on the mission orbit. NürFET responses are compared with two different sensors on the market with demonstrated performance. The radiation detector reader has been designed by the Space Technologies Research Institute (TUBITAK UZAY) and named MURaD and it contains three distinctive sensors, namely the aforementioned Nuclear Radiation Sensing Field Effect Transistor (NürFET), the p-channel RADFET, and the Floating Gate Dosimeter (FGDOS), respectively. They are used to measure TID comparatively and separately. The whole radiation module contains three different sensors which are exposed to gamma radiation on the ground via a Co-60 source and the functional and/or parametric test results are presented.
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ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ALPHA PARTICLE DETECTION PERFORMANCE OF A NEWLY DEVELOPED PIN PHOTODIODE

Ercan Yilmaz, Emre Doganci, Farid Ahmadov, Gadir Ahmadov, Azar Sadigov, Samir Suleymanov

Pages: 145–147

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.29

The Silicon PIN photodiodes (Si-PIN) with an active area of 5.0 x 5.0 mm2 were designed and fabricated by using a conventional photolithography process at the Center of Nuclear Radiation Detectors Research and Application (NÜRDAM) for the investigation of electrical characteristics and alpha particle detection performance. To obtain the device electrical specifications, the current-voltage (I-V) and the capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements were carried out in the photoconductive mode. The Si-PIN photodiode was then used to detect alpha particles from different radioactive sources in a vacuum at room temperature. Photodiode dark current and capacitance were measured and found to be - 20 nA and 23pF, respectively, at -20 Volts (the operating voltage used during alpha particle detection). The possibilities of improving the parameters of the photodiode are discussed.
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CADMIUM ZINC TELLURIDE SOLID-STATE DETECTOR CHARACTERISATION FOR ITS USE AS A SPECTRO-DOSEMETER

Nikola Kržanović, Annette Röttger, Viacheslav Morosh, Maksym Luchkov, Stefan Neumaier

Pages: 148–151

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.30

Concerning ionising radiation monitoring in the environment in areas which, by normal means, are inaccessible, e.g. in contaminated areas after a nuclear or radiological incident, the use of highly mobile systems, comprising of unmanned airborne vehicles equipped with ionising radiation detector, is advised in order to protect the health and the life of first responders. As a promising candidate, the compact solid-state spectrometer based on CdZnTe is characterised by performing irradiations in the reference radionuclide radiation fields of PTB. The energy-dependent conversion coefficients are derived from recorded pulse-height spectra, and they enable calculation of the operational radiation protection quantity, ambient dose equivalent rate, directly from the spectrum without deconvolution. The validity of the conversion coefficients was evaluated by determining the deviation of the calculated dose rate from the reference ambient dose equivalent rate for the 226Ra radionuclide, available at the Underground Dosimetry Laboratory (UDO II) of PTB. By employing the derived conversion coefficients, the detector “linearity” (dose rate dependence of the response) was checked in the 137Cs reference fields of different ambient dose equivalent rates ranging from 25 nSv/h up to 1 μSv/h. The deviation of the calculated 226Ra dose rate from the achieved reference value was +2%.
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Radiation Effects

IRRADIATION EFFECT ON Er2O3/n-Si STRUCTURE UNDER HIGH GAMMA-RAY DOSE

Aysegul Kahraman, Berk Morkoc, Alex Mutale, Umutcan Gurer, Ercan Yilmaz

Pages: 152–155

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.31

The aim of this study is to investigate the structural transformations of erbium oxide (Er2O3) dielectric which can be used as a sensitive region in the new generation RadFET radiation sensors under a high gamma dose. The Er2O3 film was grown on n-type Si (100) by RF magnetron sputtering and film thickness was measured as 118 nm. The samples were irradiated by a 60Co radioactive source with the doses of 1 kGy, 25 kGy, and 50 kGy. The crystal structure samples were analysed by the X-ray diffraction method. The variation in the bond properties of the as-deposited Er2O3 film was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The pre-irradiation Er2O3 film demonstrated an amorphous structure, and the peaks belonging to the cubic phase were observed after irradiation, their density increasing with increasing the dose. The Er 4d spectra of the Er2O3/Si films were two fitted peaks indicating Er-Er and Er-O bonds, except for the interface. The binding energy shifted to higher energies with increasing the depth from due to possible ErSiOx formation at the interface. The Si-O/Er-O and M/O ratios change with the applied dose and film depth.
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Co-60 GAMMA RADIATION INFLUENCES ON THE ELECTROCHEMICAL, PHYSICAL AND ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RARE-EARTH DYSPROSIUM OXIDE (Dy2O3)

Umutcan Gürer, Ercan Yilmaz

Pages: 156–161

This paper has been withdrawn at the request of the authors.

Material Science

RECYCLING OF HAZELNUT SHELL: SYNTHESIS OF BORON CARBIDE BY CARBOTHERMIC REACTION

Erhan Budak, Serdar Hizarci, Ercan Yilmaz

Pages: 162–166

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.33

In the present study, boron carbide was prepared using boric acid and hazelnut shell activated carbon by a carbothermic reduction method at 1400 °C. Two different methods were applied to obtain activated carbon for this study; activated carbon production using hazelnut shells (I) and sulfuric acid treatment of hazelnut shells (II). The formation of boron carbide was proven by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction(XRD), also the morphological examination was done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average grain sizes were found as 30 and 7 nm for II and I, respectively. In addition, the calculated lattice parameters were closely matched with the reported values in the JCPDS card. It was found that hazelnut shells can be used as an alternative carbon source for boron carbide synthesis.
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CdZnTe BULK-CRYSTAL GROWTH AND SURFACE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY AT METU-CGL

Yasin Ergunt, Merve Pinar Kabukcuoglu, Ozden Basar Balbasi, Bengisu Yasar, Yunus Eren Kalay, Mehmet Parlak, Rasit Turan

Pages: 167–171

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.34

The study of Cd1-xZnxTe (Cadmium Zinc Telluride) bulk-crystal growth and surface processing technology at the Middle East Technical University (METU) began in 2012. The initial R&D efforts were started with the growing of CdZnTe ingots up to a size of 15 mm in diameter in a three-zone vertical Bridgman furnace located in a limited laboratory area of 15 m2. Following promising development in terms of single crystal yield and the crystal growth process, a new vertical gradient freeze (VGF) multi-zone furnace setup was designed and developed to accommodate the production of 60 mm diameter CdZnTe ingots. The entire furnace setup is located in a newly founded 90 m2 laboratory named the METU Crystal Growth Laboratory (METU-CGL) in 2013. The laboratory is fully dedicated to the CdZnTe material growth and surface processing technology. Currently, METU-CGL is capable of producing 60 mm diameter CdZnTe ingots with one large grain and a few small grains. CdZnTe material is continuously grown in order to serve as either a substrate material (Cd0.96Zn0.04Te) for infrared detectors or an active material (Cd0.90Zn0.10Te) for X-ray/Gamma-ray detectors. As a typical yield, 2-3 oriented wafers per radial slice are retrieved from the grown ingots. The target wafer dimensions are 20 mm x 20 mm; however, larger or smaller crystals can be obtained based on the application of interest. The crystalline quality of the produced crystals is way below 50 arcsec of FWHM (Full width at half maximum) values from the DCRC (Double crystal rocking curves) measurements and the EPD (Etch-pit density) values are typically mid-104/cm2. Infrared (IR) transmission of the home-grown CdZnTe crystals is exceeding 60% and stays constant within 2-20 µm wavelength interval showing that the crystals have low density of inclusions and precipitates. Not only limited to CdZnTe bulk growth technology, the METU-CGL is also capable of slicing and surface processing technologies including optimized lapping, rough mechanical polishing, and performing final chemo-mechanical polishing steps with extreme care regarding surface roughness and subsurface damage. Achievable surface roughness values of produced wafers are well below 0.5 nm (Rrms). Various state-of-the-art characterization techniques including HRTEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy) and APT (Atom probe tomography) were conducted to study nanoscale defects in CdZnTe as a material property. This paper reviews many aspects of CdZnTe bulk-growth, surface finishing, and characterization technologies at METU-CGL as well as the laboratory infrastructure itself.
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SENSING CHARACTERISTICS OF SnO2 THIN FILM GAS SENSORS

Sinan Oztel, Zeynel Abidin Sezer, Erhan Budak, Ercan Yilmaz

Pages: 172–175

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.35

The Pt-doped SnO2 thin film detector sensitivities for different gases including the propane, carbon dioxide, acetone, and oxygen have been investigated incorporating the structural evolution of the thin film. The crystallographic structure of the SnO2 layer significantly varied with increasing the Pt concentration and grain size of the film decrease with Pt content. The highest gas sensitivity of the films is exhibited for the oxygen gases. In addition, the oxygen sensitivity of the sensors increases with the Pt concentration up to a specific operating temperature. This variation may be due to the different contributions of the spillover and Fermi energy control mechanisms to sensor sensitivities. The present results have depicted that the sensor design should be carefully configured to promote the sensing responses of the gas sensors.
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Medical Physics

INFLUENCE OF THE DISTANCE BETWEEN IMPLANTED SOURCES ON THE TUMOUR CONTROL PROBABILITY

Evgeniia S. Sukhikh, Andrey V. Vertinskiy, Leonid G. Sukhikh, Alexandr V. Taletsky, Mariya A. Tatarchenko

Pages: 176–180

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.36

Optimization of the applicators position is very important for uniform dose distribution in the case of lip cancer treated using brachytherapy methods. Depending on the patient’s anatomical data there are several possible positions of the applicators at different distances. The criterion of the choice of the best positions can be based on the tumour control probability concept that naturally takes into account both physical dose distribution and radiobiological effects. In this work, we present the results of the investigation of the influence of the distance between applicators implanted in the recommended range of distances (8-12 mm) on the value of tumour control probability in the case of lip cancer. According to our investigations the optimal distances amounted 9 and 10 mm between implants.
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FIRST RESULTS AND ASPECTS OF IN VIVO DOSIMETRY SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION OF EXTERNAL RADIATION THERAPY IN TOMSK REGIONAL ONCOLOGY CENTER

Andrey V. Vertinskiy, Leonid G. Sukhikh, Evgeniia S. Sukhikh, Yana N. Sutygina

Pages: 181–186

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.37

This article describes some aspects of the implementation of the system in vivo dosimetry PerFraction with the linear accelerator Elekta Synergy Platform. The first results of in vivo dosimetry application are presented in comparison with the results of 3D phantom-based ArcCHECK dosimetry.
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RADIATION-INDUCED SKIN PIGMENTATION AFTER ACCELERATED PARTIAL BREAST IRRADIATION: DOSE-VOLUME HISTOGRAM ANALYSIS

Alena Demianovich, Dmitriy Sanin, Natalia Borysheva, Valeriya Martynova, Sergey Ivanov, Andrey Kaprin

Pages: 187–190

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.38

This research demonstrates the treatment of breast cancer with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy in the 34 Gy mode performed in 10 twice-a-day treatments, six hours apart over a period of five days. According to the protocol the maximum allowable radiation exposure for the skin did not exceed 34 Gy. By May 2019, 28 patients were treated with a mean follow-up of 10.5 months, with the median of the study being 11 months. Among these patients, 7 had shown toxic effects on the skin in the form of pigmentation. For these patients parameters such as Dmax, D0.01сс, D0.1сс, D1сс, and D2сс were analysed. Among the patients, some had the same values or higher but did not exhibit toxic effects. Therefore, the expected effects, as well as the results of treatment, are very individual and dependent on many factors. We can only try to minimise them. As a result, it is necessary to show care with values of Dmax ≥ 33 Gy, D0.01сс ≥ 32, D0.1сс ≥ 30, D1сс ≥ 27 and D2сс ≥ 24.
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  2. J. A. Latorre et al., “Accelerated partial breast irradiation in a single 18 Gy fraction with high-dose-rate brachytherapy: preliminary results,” J. Contemp. Brachytherapy, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 58 - 63, Feb. 2018.
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  3. S. Ahmad et al., “Comparison of tumor and normal tissue dose for accelerated partial breast irradiation using an electronic brachytherapy eBx source and an Iridium‐192 source,” J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 155 - 161, Sep. 2010.
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  8. G. L. Smith et al., “Association between treatment with brachytherapy vs whole-breast irradiation and subsequent mastectomy, complications, and survival among older women with invasive breast cancer,” JAMA Oncol., vol. 307, no. 17, pp. 1827 – 1837, May 2012.
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  11. M. Akhtari et al., “Clinical outcomes, toxicity, and cosmesis in breast cancer patients with close skin spacing treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using multi-lumen/catheter applicators,” J. Contemp. Brachytherapy, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 497 - 504, Dec. 2016.
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  12. V. Strnad et al., “ESTRO-ACROP guideline: Interstitial multi-catheter breast brachytherapy as Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation alone or as boost - GEC-ESTRO Breast Cancer Working Group practical recommendations,” Radiother. Oncol., vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 411 - 420, Sep. 2018.
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Radiology

RECURRENT EXPOSURE OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC CONDITIONS IN A SMALL PRIVATE MEDICAL CENTER

Olga Girjoaba

Pages: 191–194

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.39

One of the topics recently proposed by the IAEA on the medical exposure to ionising radiation is the recurrent exposure of patients with chronic conditions, at short intervals, using highly irradiating procedures such as CT examinations and interventional cardiological and non-cardiological procedures. An IAEA study presents that the number of patients who have received cumulative effective doses (CED) in the 50-500 mSv range, over a period of 1-5 years, has increased a lot in recent years. Based on these considerations, we performed a study referring to the evaluation of CED due to recurrent CT exposures, performed with a CT unit GE Bright Speed 16, in a private medical center focused on the follow-up on the evolution of malignant diseases of the patients, during the treatment process. In our study, we used a local electronic system for individual registration of medical exposures, that provides information about patient data and also about scan parameters, including total dose-length product (DLP), for every exam performed. Based on this information, CED was evaluated for patients with recurrent exposure. We analyzed a patient group of 350 persons randomly chosen, that performed 500 CT examinations, 52 patients from the total number (14.8%) presenting recurrent exposures over a period of 1-5 years. All of the patients who performed recurrent exposure received a CED of more than 100 mSv. Most of the patients from the study are over 50 years old and most frequently only 2-4 exams per patient are performed, but there are also 6 patients who were scanned 8-10 times over a period of 1-5 years. For many patients, the time interval between consecutive scans is less than one year, meaning that an important radiation dose is received by the patient within a short time interval. To have a real image of CED for every patient from Romania, it is necessary to create an electronic system at the national level for individual registration of medical exposures. This electronic system must be available to every physician, from everywhere in the country and the ionising radiation exams must be indicated after a good analysis of information concerning the CED of every patient.
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    Retrieved on: Jul. 10, 2019
  3. The Council of European Union. (Dec. 5, 2013). Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM. Laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation, and repealing Directives 89/618/Euratom, 90/641/Euratom, 96/29/Euratom, 97/43/Euratom and 2003/122/Euratom.
    Retrieved from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2014:013:0001:0073:EN:PDF
    Retrieved on: Jul. 11, 2019

PRELIMINARY RISK ASSESSMENT STUDY – NEUROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN EXPERIMENTAL LONG-TIME EXPOSURE TO LOW GSM RADIATION

Soimita Suciu, Dana Dabala, Adrian Florea, Alexandra Sevastre-Berghian, Emanoil Surducan, Vasile Surducan, Camelia Neamtu

Pages: 195–201

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.40

Purpose: Due to the continuously rising number of mobile phone users of an increasingly younger age, our preliminary study aims to assess the possible neurobiological effects of chronic exposure to microwaves possessing frequencies and power levels similar to GSM signals. For this purpose, rats were irradiated in their daily habitat. Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats (3 months old) were exposed to GSM 860–890 MHz for 4 hours a day for 36 weeks. This group was compared with sham-exposed rats. The medium exposure value of the microwave field power density was ≈60 mW/m2 and medium whole body SAR ≈ 0.15 W/kg. Two types of behavioral tests (open field test and elevated pulse maze) and a transmission electron microscopy on brain samples were performed after 3 and 9 months of exposure, respectively. Results: Exposed rats exhibited decreased locomotor activity and increased emotionality as compared with sham-exposed animals. Transmission electron microscopy examination, performed after 3 and 9 months of exposure, showed neurodegenerative alterations in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex. Severity of the alterations seems to be related to the duration of exposure. Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that long-term and low-dose cumulative microwave radiation could cause, in rats, ultrastructural changes in neurons, glia and stress behaviour. Further research is needed to investigate the interaction between mobile phone radiations and the central nervous system at the molecular level.
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Radiotherapy

USING SILICONE BASED RUBBERS AS BOLUS MATERIALS IN RADIOTHERAPY

Bogdan Ile, Iosif Malaescu, Marius Spunei, Catalin Nicolae Marin, Serban Negru

Pages: 202–205

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.41

In radiotherapy certain types of cancer are encountered that occupy both the surface of the skin and the tissue underneath, which requires the use of attenuation materials in order to ensure correct treatment. Our research aim is to find materials that are more cost effective than the commercially available ones.
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  2. E. C. Halperin, D. E. Wazer, C. A. Perez, L. W. Brady, Perez & Brady’s Principles and Practice of Radiation Oncology, 7th ed., Philadelphia (PA), USA: LWW/Wolters Kluwer, 2018, p. 91.
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  6. E. B. Podgorsak, “Treatment machines for external beam radiotherapy,” in Radiation oncology physics: a handbook for teachers and students, Vienna, Austria: IAEA, 2005, ch. 5, sec. 5.5, p. 136.
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  8. F. M. Khan, J. P. Gibbons, Khan`s The Physics of Radiation Therapy, 5th ed., Philadelphia (PA), USA: LWW/Wolters Kluwer, 2014, p. 223.
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  9. RTV-530 Gomma siliconica in pasta, Prochima, Colli al Metauro, Italia. (RTV-530 Paste silicone rubber, Prochima, Colli al Metauro, Italy.)
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  10. Cauciuc Cristal. (Crystal rubber.)
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  11. Gomme siliconiche per stampi, Prochima, Colli al Metauro, Italia. (Silicone rubbers for molds, Prochima, Colli al Metauro, Italy.)
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    Retrieved on: May 5, 2019
  12. ArcCHECK®& 3DVH®, Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne (FL), USA.
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Microwave, Laser, RF and UV radiations

PREVENTIVE TREATMENT OF DRYING CHAMBER WITH UV RADIATION AND OZONIZATION FOR PROTECTION AGAINST SPOILAGE OF RAW SMOKED SAUSAGES

A.M. Abdullaeva, L.P. Blinkova, I.G. Seryogin, D.I. Udavliev, S.S. Shikhov, Yu.D. Pakhomov

Pages: 206–211

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.42

In this work, we present data on efficiency of UV irradiation and its combination with ozone treatment for disinfection of drying chambers of dry smoked sausages that are subject to molding during storage. Biocide effect was created using UV irradiator OBN-150 and ozonator-irradiator OZUF. A study of the total number of microorganisms and molds before and after inactivation was conducted with exposition times of 30, 60 and 90 minutes. Biocide effect was stronger with longer exposition times. Molds were more resistant to the effect of irradiators than bacteria. As a result of 90-minute irradiation with OZUF apparatus we achieved death of approximately 90% of microbiota and more than 80% of molds. Shelf-life of dry smoked sausage without molding increased.
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    DOI: 10.22363/2312-797X-2015-4-101-107
  2. Н. А. Соколова, А. М. Абдуллаева, М. Н. Лощинин, Возбудители зооантропонозов, пищевых отравлений, порчи сырья и продуктов животного происхождения, Москва, Россия: ДеЛи плюс, 2015. (N. A. Sokolova, A. M. Abdullaeva, M. N. Loshchinin, Pathogens of zooanthroponosis, food poisoning, spoilage of raw materials and products of animal origin, Moscow, Russia: DeLi plus, 2015.)
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  3. Ю. Г. Костенко, Руководство по санитарно-микробиологическим основам и предупреждению рисков при производстве и хранении мясной продукции, Москва, Россия: Tехносфера, 2015. (Yu. G. Kostenko “Guidance on the sanitary-microbiological basis and risk prevention in the production and storage of meat products,” Moscow, Russia: Technosphere, 2015.)
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  4. А. М. Абдуллаева, И. Г. Серегин, Л. Б. Леонтьев, Н. А. Соколова, М. Н. Лощинин, “О бактериальной безопасности мяса птицы,” Ветеринария сельскохозяйственных животных, но. 11, стр. 41 – 49, 2017. (A. M. Abdullaeva, I. G. Seryogin, L. B. Leontyev, N. A. Sokolova, M. N. Loshchinin, “About bacterial safety of poultry meat,” Vet. farm anim., no 11, pp. 41 - 49, 2017.)
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Pharmaceutical Sciences

METHODS FOR MANAGING TEXTURAL PROPERTIES OF NANOPOWDERS TO CREATE A DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM BASED ON SiO2, SiO2-MnO2

O. A. Zlygosteva, S. Yu. Sokovnin, V. G. Ilves

Pages: 212–215

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.43

The physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials depend not only on the nature of the substance, but also on the size and shape of the particles, as well as the size and shape of the pores. In this paper, the methods for managing the textural properties of SiO2, SiO2-MnO2 nanopowders, produced by pulsed electron beam evaporation in vacuum, are investigated. The researched methods include doping at the stage of preparation and ultrasonic treatment of aqueous nanopowder suspensions. In addition, the radiation of CaF2 nanopowders by relativistic electrons was considered as a potential method for managing properties.
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    PMid: 22216418
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    DOI: 10.1002/9783527648122
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    DOI: 10.1016/S1748-0132(07)70084-1
  5. O. A. Zlygosteva, S. Y. Sokovnin, V. G. Ilves, “The use of manganese-doped mesoporous silica nanopowder for targeted drug delivery,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1115, 2018.
    DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1115/4/042067
  6. Y. Li et al., “Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Tunable Structures for Controlled Drug Delivery,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 2123 - 2129, Jan. 2017.
    DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b13876
    PMid: 28004570
  7. S. Iravani, H. Korbekandi, S. V. Mirmohammadi, B. Zolfaghari, “Synthesis of silver nanoparticles: chemical, physical and biological methods,” Res. Pharm. Sci., vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 385 - 406, Nov.-Dec. 2014.
    PMid: 26339255
    PMCid: PMC4326978
  8. S. Y. Sokovnin, V. G. Il`ves, M. G. Zuev, “Production of complex metal oxide nanopowders using pulsed electron beam in low-pressure gas for biomaterials application,” in Engineering of Nanobiomaterials: Applications of Nanobiomaterials, vol. 2, A. M. Grumezescu, Eds., 1st ed., Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Inc., 2016, ch. 2, pp. 29 - 75.
    DOI: 10.1016/C2015-0-00356-2
  9. О. А. Злыгостева, С. Ю. Соковнин, В. Г. Ильвес, “Оценка свойств мезопористого диоксида кремния, допированного диоксидом марганца, полученного импульсным электронным испарением, для применения в биомедицине,” Физико-химические аспекты изучения кластеров, наноструктур и наноматериалов: межвуз. сб. науч. тр., т. 9, стр. 199 - 204, 2017. (O. A. Zlygosteva, S. Yu. Sokovnin, V. G Il’vec, “Properties evaluation of mesoporous silica nanopowders doped with manganese dioxide produced by a pulsed electron beam evaporation for biomedical applications,” Phys. Chem. Asp. Study of Clust., Nanostruct. Nanomater.: Collect. Pap., vol. 9, pp. 199 - 204, 2017.)
    DOI: 10.26456/pcascnn/2017.9.199
  10. V. G. Il’ves, M. G. Zuev, S. Y. Sokovnin, “Properties of Silicon Dioxide Amorphous Nanopowder Produced by Pulsed Electron Beam Evaporation,” J. Nanotechnol., vol. 2015, no. 18, pp. 1 - 8, Oct. 2015.
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  11. P. Tian et al., “TiO2/CaF2 composite coating on titanium for biomedical application,” Mater. Lett., vol. 117, pp. 98 - 100, Feb. 2014.
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  12. S. Y. Sokovnin, M. E. Balezin, “Repetitive nanosecond electron accelerators type URT-1 for radiation technology,” Radiat. Phys. Chem., vol. 144, pp. 265 - 270, Mar. 2018.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2017.08.023

Biochemistry

INTERRELATIONSHIP OF PREFRONTAL BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR AND NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEM DURING CHRONIC RESTRAINT STRESS

Nataša Popović, Vesna Stojiljković, Snežana Pejić, Ana Todorović, Ivan Pavlović, Snežana B. Pajović and Ljubica Gavrilović

Pages: 216–219

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.44

The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important role in the adaptation of the organism to stress. Because of a key role of neuroendocrine system in response to a stressful situation, as well as a significant impact of stress on neuronal plasticity, in this work we investigated how chronic restraint stress (CRS: 2 hours × 14 days) affected the protein levels of BDNF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as the concentration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) in the plasma. In addition, the aim of this study was to determine a possible correlation between levels of BDNF in the PFC and plasma CORT levels of animals exposed to CRS. We found that CRS increases levels of prefrontal BDNF protein by 25% and levels of CORT by 280%, but decreases levels of ACTH by 18%. Also, we recorded a low, but significant positive correlation between prefrontal BDNF levels and concentrations of CORT in the plasma of chronically stressed rats. Our data confirm that prefrontal BDNF might be an important regulator involved in the adaptive strategy of the HPA axis to maintain adequate reactivity in stress conditions provoked by CRS.
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  9. N. Popović et al., “Modulation of Hippocampal Antioxidant Defense System in Chronically Stressed Rats by Lithium,” Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev., vol. 2019, Feb. 2019.
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Biophysics

BLUE LIGHT REDUCING SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS FOR MOBILE PHONE SCREENS: MEASUREMENT OF SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

S. Mitropoulos, V. Tsiantos, A. Americanos, I. Sianoudis, A. Skouroliakou

Pages: 220–224

DOI: 10.37392/RapProc.2019.45

The displays of the majority of electronic devices nowadays are illuminated by Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) or Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs). These types of light sources have certain advantages regarding colour variety, contrast, resolution and the ability to construct thinner screens. Nevertheless, recent research raises concern of possible negative biological impact of these display types on visual health and the circadian rhythm. The biological basis of the concern lies in the emission spectra of the light sources. The white LEDs used as backlights in LED screens have a characteristic emission spectrum with a peak at 450 nm and the Red-Green-Blue (RGB) OLED emission spectrum has a blue peak. Both of them are very close to the 460nm where the melanopsin retina pigment presents the maximum absorption. In order to reduce the blue light emission several techniques have been developed including hardware adjustments, external filters and software applications that control the emission display characteristics. This study aims to record the performance of several available software applications on different mobile phone models. The spectral power distributions of the mobile phone screen were recorded by means of a commercial radiospectrometer, without and with the use of the blue light reducing software application, for various blue light filtering levels depending on the application. Several photometric and circadian parameters were calculated from the available spectra such as circadian light input, photopic illuminance and melatonin suppression index. The results of the study are the recordings of the respective differences in mobile screen output with and without the use of the blue light reduction application, presented in terms of spectral power and biologically relevant parameters. The analysis of the measuring procedure and the obtained results lead to an evaluation of the application performance variation depending on the mobile phone type and a standardised measurement protocol in order to have comparable results that could be used for blue light reducing software applications performance evaluation.
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